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  1. #1
    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    got from the other forum, let's discuss?

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    1.mechanism of blister formation in burns.
    2.the main cell acting in the burns blister formation.
    3.TB person on treatment with burning pain on leg.vitamin deficiency?
    4.alcoholic with ulcers in the mouth.vitamin deficiency?
    5.interleukins in hematopoiesis?
    6.false positive rate and false negative rate ratio.What will happen to it when we increase sensitivity and decrease specificity.
    7.CHF-mechanism of pulmanary hypertension in a patient. Given increase/decrease in hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure
    8.edema in nephrotic syndrome reason for it. hydrostatic p and oncotic p as choices.
    9.Cvs graph with the mechanism of cardiac action.Mark where is s2
    10.Action of CCA on the cardiac action potential
    11.metformin and the lactic acidosis. given the parameters of ph hco3 and pco2 of a patient with DM. Reason?choices of drugs
    12protein folding and the endoplasmic reticulam.
    13.adrenal gland histology .. clinical scenario hypertensive on captoprill.
    mark the site.
    14.adrenal gland histo-mark the site of steroid formation.
    15.diarrohrea and ulcers in the intestine. H/o travel+
    16.H.pylory and 3-4 q's regarding the relashion ship with ulcers,cancer,treatment and the mechanism of action of the drug for it.
    17.insulin and tyrosin kinase actions.
    18.hormones and actions(signal transduction mechanisms)
    19.nitric oxide and action on vasodialation.
    20.action of methorexate
    21.X-ray with bamboo spine.
    22.aortic aneurism
    23.dissecting aorta
    24.PDA and the murmur.
    25.defctive diaphragm devp and the herniation clinical picture.
    26.pleural effusion clinical picture and diag.

  2. #2
    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    thanks

    wow, great stuff! i'm not sure where to begin?? well i'll start with #24 because I just read about it.

    24.PDA and the murmur.

    the murmur heard with a PDA is a machinery murmur. other points about PDAs:
    - associated with congenital rubella
    - initially left to rt shunt from aorta to pulm artery thru ductus arteriosus. step up of O2 to 80% in pulm art. left atrium has 95% SaO2. vol overloaded rt heart may lead to eisenmenger's syndrome.

    ref: kaplan path notes by goljan pgs 34 and 61.

  3. #3
    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    #22 aortic aneurysm

    -aortic aneursym is the most common type of aneurysm.
    -most common in men over 55.
    - weakening of wall by atherosclerosis owing to no vasa vasorum below the renal artery orifices. Law of Laplace states that as diameter increases the wall stress progressively increases ---> rupture is inevitable. often accompanied by popliteal artery aneurysm
    - majority are asymptomatic.
    - symptomatic has pulsatile mass with mid-abd to lower back pain, 50% abd bruit, and rupture is most common complication.
    - abd us is gold standard test


    ref: kaplan path notes by goljan pg 42

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    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    #23 dissecting aortic aneurysm

    #23 dissecting aortic aneurysm

    - mean age 60-65
    - men> women
    - elastic tissue fragmentation (95%)
    - central medial necrosis
    - associated with Marfan's (defect fibrillin), ED (defect collagen), pregnancy (increased plasma vol.), copper deficiency, coarctation of aorta, trauma.
    - acute onset severe retrosternal chest pain with radiation to back, AV regurg (due to dialation of aortic valve ring by aneurysm), signs of cardiac tamponade, loss of upper extremity pulse, stroke.
    - increased aortic diameter on cxr (80%), retrograde arteriography gold standard test, overall long-term survival 60%.


    Ref: kaplan path notes by goljan pg 44

  5. #5
    NIB-I is offline Newbie
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    NIB

    21. bamboo spine an undulating contour of the vertebral body caused by extensive syndesmophytes. Bamboo spine occurs in various conditions, including alkaptonuria, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis., also Reiter's syndrom.

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    NIB-I is offline Newbie
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    TB

    3. Tb patient and burnin pain in legs. Deficiency of vitamin B-6 produces profound skin and neurological changes, such as peripheral neuropathy. Vitamin B-6 is often co-administered with Isoniazid (a tuberculosis treatment) to reduce drug-related toxicities.

  7. #7
    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    20.action of methorexate

    20.action of methorexate


    methotrexate is a folic acid analog which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase. resistance to the drug is due to increased levels, or altered, enzyme. can be used intrathecally for metastases. used for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), psoriasis. most commonly used DMARD for RA. High dose used for metastatic osteogenic sarcoma. leucovorin save.

    major toxicities include BMS, oral and gi tract ulcerations, hepatic fibrosis, and renal toxicity (high doses).

    works on s phase of cell cycle


    ref: kaplan pharm pg 200

  8. #8
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    7.CHF-mechanism of pulmanary hypertension in a patient.

    7.CHF-mechanism of pulmanary hypertension in a patient. Given increase/decrease in hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure

    Right heart failure (RHF):
    -left heart failure is most common cause of RHF.
    - right ventricular infaction
    - blood builds up behind the failed rt heart --> increase in rt vent vol/press --> increase in rt atrial press --> increase in jugular venous press --> hydrostatic press overrides pulm capillary oncotic press --> dependent pitting edema + ascites.
    - backward failure
    - volume overloaded rt vent (rt sided S3 heart sound)
    - decreased compliance (rt sided S4 heart sound)
    - tricuspid regurg - pansystolic murmur at left parasternal border (increases with inspiration).
    - Rx by decreasing preload and after load
    - ace inhibitors decrease preload (blocks aldosterone) and afterload (blocks angiotensin II)
    - diuretics decrease preload.
    - restriction of salt and water decreases preload


    ref: kaplan path notes by goljan pg 58

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