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Subject: Tommy's Concepts

Subject: Tommy's Concepts
Tommy's Concepts for the USMLE Step 1


We have a15-year-old girl with a complaint of chest pain. She states the pain has come and gone over the past year, but has increased in frequency over the past few weeks. She describes it as a sharp pain over her left chest. Physical exam is normal. Cardiac examination reveals a late systolic murmur preceded by a click at the apex. No heave or rub is present. An electrocardiogram and chest x-ray film are unremarkable.  What is the pathology?  Will she need antibiotics prior to say… dental procedures?<br />
 <br />
1-Tetralogy of Fallot<br />
2-Atrial septal defect<br />
3-Ventricular septal defect<br />
4-Mitral stenosis<br />
5-Mitral valve prolapse<br />
6-Mitral regurg