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Thread: Q-3) Vitamins

  1. #1
    Roxanita is offline Senior Member
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    Q-3) Vitamins


    Q.- During a long period of vitamin deficiency, which of the following water soluble vitamins would be the last to cause a clinical syndrome?

    e) Biotin

  2. #2
    Asclepius1's Avatar
    Asclepius1 is offline Ultimate Member 537 points
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    vit b1 is thiamine and deficiency will cause wernicke's, like with an alcoholic.

    b2 is riboflavin and deficiency will cause corneal neovascularization.

    b5 is Pantothenic Acid. a deficiency can cause fatigue, psoriasis, and headache.

    niacin is vit b3. deficiency causes pellegra with the four d's of diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, and death.

    biotin is sometimes called vit H. very little is required in diet and it is very rare to have a deficiency of biotin unless the pt excessively eats raw eggs. Raw eggs contain a protein called avidin that binds biotin and blocks its absorption but cooking inactivates the biotin-binding properties of avidin.

    i'm not really sure about this, but my guess would be biotin only because it's such a rare deficiency. but just a guess really.

  3. #3
    pharmacology is offline Member
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    My guess is also biotin
    Folate Folic Acid
    folacin) isa water-soluble Bvitamin. Like
    mostwater-solublevitamins,excess intakeof folate is excreted
    andnotstored in the body.Folate issensitive toheat, oxygen
    andultraviolet light,thereforefoodpreparation,processing, and
    storageeasily destroys folate.
    for women and 200micrograms for men.Folaterequirementsareincreased to
    400 micrograms during pregnancyand280microgramsduringbreast-feeding. As
    a precaution, the U.S.PublicHealthServiceadvises400 micrograms daily
    for women whobecomepregnant.
    Functions of Folic Acid
    Necessary for DNA & RNA synthesis Essential for the growth and reproduction of all body cellsWorks with vitamin B12 in the formation of red blood cells Aids in amino acid metabolismEspecially important for women of childbearing ageDeficiency Symptoms of Folic Acid
    Pernicious anemia (large cell type) Depression Impairs growthIn pregnancy, greater risk of delivering a baby with neural tube deficits such as spinal bifidaExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms of FolicAcid (400-1,000 micrograms)
    May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency May interfere with other medicationsIntestinal problemsMajor Dietary Sources of Folic Acid
    Green leafy vegetables such as turnip greens, spinach, butterhead lettuce Kidney beans, navy beans, pinto beans, black beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, cowpeas, green peas, lima beansOrgan meats, meat, seafood, eggs, brewer's yeast, asparagus, broccoli, collards Mostenrichedgrainproducts-whole
    grain breads, cereals, flour, macaroni,rice,farina,cornmeal, corngrits-
    must be fortified with folicacidaccording to anew law.
    B vitamin. Likemost water-soluble vitamins,excessintakeofpantothenic
    acid is excreted and not storedin thebody.Pantothenicacidis sensitive
    to heat. There is no specificRDAforpantothenic acid.Butfor adults, 4-7
    milligrams is estimated tobesafe and adequate.
    Functions of Pantothenic Acid
    Helps convert proteins, carbohydrates, fats into energySynthesizes hormones and cholesterol Fights infections by building antibodiesImproves the body's resistance to stressDeficiency Symptoms of Pantothenic Acid
    Retards growth Infertility Fatigue Irritability Skin abnormalitiesWeaknessDepression Decreased resistance to infectionMuscle crampsExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms ofPantothenic Acid (10-20 grams)
    Occasional diarrheaWater retentionMajor Dietary Sources of Pantothenic Acid
    chicken, yogurt,sweet potato, milk,ham,corn, whole-wheatmacaroni,
    kidney beans,avocado,mushrooms,soybeans, banana,orange,collard greens,
    potato,broccoli, cantaloupe,peanutbutter,apple, wheatgerm, whole grain
    breadsand cereals.
    vitamin. Like mostwater-soluble vitamins,excessintakeofthiamin is
    excreted and not stored in the body.Thiaminissensitivetoheat and, like
    other water-soluble vitamins, iseasilydestroyedbyfoodpreparation. The
    RDA for adults is 1.1 mg forfemalesand 1.5 mgformales. Duringpregnancy
    the amount recommendedincreasesto 1.5 mg and1.6mg during breast-feeding.
    Functions of Thiamin
    Helps produce energy in all cells of the bodyPromotes growth & good muscle toneStabilizes the appetiteAids in energy (carbohydrate) metabolismEssential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, muscles & heart Deficiency Symptoms of Thiamin
    Poor appetite Weakness Nerve damagePins and needles in legsFatigueInsomniaLoss of weightVague aches & pains Beriberi, which affects the nervous and cardiovascular systems, and muscle wasting Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which results in mental confusion, amnesia and muscular incoordination Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms of Thiamin
    The kidney excretes any excess thiamin. Extra amounts have no energy boosting effect.Major Dietary Sources of Thiamin
    brewer's yeast,whole grain bread, cereals,enrichedrice,sunflowerseeds,
    ham steak, wheat germ, greenpeas,blackbeans,watermelon, Canadianbacon,
    fish, split peas,oatmeal,black-eyedpeas,oysters, milk, potatoes,whole
    grains andenrichedcereals andbreads.

    a water-soluble vitamin.Unlikeotherwater-solublevitamins, vitaminB12 is
    stored in the liver. VitaminB12issensitive toultraviolet light.Vitamin
    B12 comes fromanimalproducts, which makesthisvitamin anutrition concern
    for vegans.TheRDA is 2.0 microgramsdaily for adults.Therecommendation
    increasesto2.2 micrograms duringpregnancy
    Functions of Vitamin B12
    Necessary for carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolismHelps in the formation & regeneration of red blood cellsHelps maintain the central nervous system Necessary for folate activity Promotes growth in childrenNeeded for calcium absorptionIncreases energyDeficiency Symptoms of Vitamin B12
    Weakness and fatiguePoor appetiteRed-sore tongue or smooth tongueGrowth failure in childrenNerve damagePernicious anemia (large cell type) Degeneration of peripheral nerves leading to paralysis Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms of VitaminB12
    No symptoms are known of Vitamin B12 toxicity Major Dietary Sources of Vitamin B12
    Liver,beef, kidney, chicken, fish such as salmon, halibut and tuna, yogurt,milk, Swiss cheese, American processed cheese, eggBreakfast cereals, soy milk and vegetarian burger patties that are fortified with vitamin B12
    vitamin. Like mostwater-soluble vitamins,excessintakeofriboflavin is
    excreted and not stored in thebody.Riboflavinissensitiveto ultraviolet
    light, which is easilydestroyedbyfoodpreparation.
    from 1.2-1.7 milligrams.Adult men need 1.7milligramsdailythrough age50;
    from age 51 the RDA decreases to1.4milligrams.Adultwomen need
    1.3milligrams daily through age 50;then 1.2milligramsdailyfrom 51
    on.During pregnancy the RDA is 1.6milligrams;duringbreast-feeding
    theRDAincreases to 1.8 milligramsdaily for thefirst 6months, then
    1.7milligrams for thesecond 6 months.
    Functions of Riboflavin
    Necessary for carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolismInvolved with the action of other B-vitamins (folate and pyridoxine) Essential for growth and general healthPromotes smooth skinNecessary for the maintenance of good vision, nails & hairAids in the formation of antibodies and red blood cellsDeficiency Symptoms of Riboflavin
    Itching and burning eyes, which become sensitive to light Cracks and sores in the mouth & lipsBloodshot eyesDry and flaky skinRetarded growthSore, red tongue Skin rash Digestive disturbancesEmotional changes, such as depression and hypochondria Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms ofRiboflavin
    May interfere with anticancer mediations Major Dietary Sources of Riboflavin
    and beef liver, meat,poultry, dark green leafyvegetablessuchaskale and
    spinach, yogurt, milk, dairy foods,egg,enrichedbreadsandcereals,
    brewer's yeast, soybeans, cheese suchasSwisscheese,black-eyedpeas,
    green peas, chick peas, kidneybeans,peanuts,broccoli

    Like mostwater-soluble vitamins, excessintakeofniacin isexcreted and
    not stored in the body.Likeotherwater-solublevitamins,niacin is lost
    into cooking water.
    niacin itself andfrom the amino acidtryptophan, partofwhichconverts
    into niacin. Niacinrecommendationsare given in NE,orniacinequivalents.
    from 13-20 milligrams NE.Adult men need 19 milligramsNEdailythroughage
    50; from age 51 the RDA decreases to 15milligramsNE.Adultwomen need15
    milligrams NE daily through age 50, then13milligramsNEdaily from 51on.
    During pregnancy the RDA is17milligrams NE; duringbreast-feedingtheRDA
    increases to 20milligramsNE daily.
    Functions of Niacin
    Helps metabolize protein, carbohydrate and fatMaintains the nervous systemMay reduce high blood pressureReduces the cholesterol level in the bloodHelps maintain healthy skin, tongue & digestive systemImproves circulationDeficiency Symptoms of Niacin
    Pellagra, characterized by dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), diarrhea and memory lossWeaknessIrritabilityInsomniaHeadachesMuscular weaknessLoss of appetiteGastrointestinal disturbanceExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms (300-600milligrams)
    Flushed skin RashesUlcers Doses exceeding 2.5 grams/day can cause liver damage and glucose intolerance MAJOR DIETARY SOURCES OF NIACIN
    tuna, salmon, codfish,and halibut, liver,kidney,peanuts,peanutbutter,
    brown rice, enriched spaghetti,enrichedgrains,sunflowerseeds,soybeans,
    eggs, legumes such as navy beans,limabeans,kidneybeans ,black-eyed
    peas, and chick peas

    pyridoxine, is awater-soluble vitamin.Likemostwater-solublevitamins,
    excess intake of pyridoxine isexcretedandnotstored in thebody.
    Pyridoxine is sensitive toheatandultravioletlight.
    daily for adult males and1.6 milligramsforadultfemales.During pregnancy
    the RDA increases to 2.2milligramsand2.1milligramsduring
    breast-feeding. Dietary requirementsincreasewithincreasedproteinintake.
    Functions of Vitamin B6
    Aids in protein metabolismHelps in the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (vitamin B3) Helps with normal brain function Essential for normal growthHelps maintain a proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the body Aids in the formation of antibodiesAids in the production of hormones and the formation of red blood cellsMaintains the central nervous systemDeficiency Symptoms of Vitamin B6
    Anemia Nerve dysfunctionDermatitis (inflammation of the skin) NervousnessFlaky or greasy skinFatigueInsomniaArm & leg crampsDermatitisIrritability or depressionMental convulsions among infantsLoss of hairLoss of muscular controlExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms ofVitamin B6 (250-1,000 milligrams)
    Nerve damage Major Dietary Sources of Vitamin B6
    peanut butter,black beans, almonds, wholegrain andenrichedbreadsand
    cereals, oatmeal, potatoes,bananas,watermelon,soybeans,brewer's
    yeast, sunflower seeds, fishsuchas tuna,salmon andpacifichalibut,
    legumes such as navy beans andgreen peas,wheatgerm,brown rice,spinach,
    egg yolk
    ascorbic acid, is awater-soluble vitamin.Likemostwater-solublevitamins,
    excess intake of vitamin C isexcretedandnotstored in thebody. Because
    vitamin C is not stored in thebodyyouneedto consumevitamin C -rich food
    on a daily basis.Asanantioxidant, Vitamin Cprotectsthe body by
    attacking freeradicalsinbody fluids, not in fattissue like
    thefatsolubleantioxidantvitamins, which may protectdifferent parts
    ofthebody. Vitamin Cissensitive to heat and oxygen.Like
    otherwater-solublevitamins,vitamin C is lost incooking water.
    60 milligrams daily. Duringpregnancy the RDA is70milligrams.Peoplewho
    smoke need about twice as much as vitaminCanonsmoker-atleast
    100milligrams daily.
    Major Body Functions of Vitamin C
    Essential for healthy teeth, gums, skin, blood and bonesHelps heal wounds, scar tissue, and fracturesAids in the absorption of iron from plant sources of food Builds resistance to infection, maintains white blood cell functionAids in the formation of collagenProvidesantioxidantprotection.Itprevents
    the conversion of nitrates (fromtobacco smoke,smog,bacon,luncheon
    meats, and some vegetables) intocancer-causingsubstances.Aids in the treatment of the common cold
    Deficiency Symptoms of Vitamin C
    Scurvy a disease that causes excessive bleeding, loose teeth, and swollen gumsSlow healing wounds and fractures Swollen or painful jointsBruising and petechiae (spots of blood under the skin's surface) NosebleedsImpaired digestionLoss of appetiteAching jointsExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms of Vitamin C(1,000-5,000 milligrams)
    Diarrhea May cause kidney stones Impaired immune functionWithdrawal symptomsMajor Dietary Sources of Vitamin C
    orange juice,orange, pineapple, broccoli,greenbellpepper,kohlrabi,
    strawberries, grapefruit,cantaloupe,tomatojuice,mango,tangerine,
    potato, raw cabbage, tomato,collardgreens,spinach,Brusselssprouts,
    turnip greens,cauliflower,blackberries,blueberries,acerol a(West Indian

  4. #4
    Roxanita is offline Senior Member
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    Vit B12

    answer: c) Vit B12

    Vit B12 is stored in the liver and thus the last of water soluble
    vitamins to be depleted from the body and show clinic symptoms of

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