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zenphonicgirl
10-08-2006, 12:05 PM
Hi guys, i collected these physiology qs..soo..i'd like to share that with you...happy study!!! Lets ACE this test...!!;) :mrgreen:
1. After osmotic equilibrium, infusion of several liters of a hypertonic saline solution will
a. decrease intracellular osmolality
b. not affect intracellular volume
c. increase extracellular fluid volume
d. decrease the plasma osmolarity

2. During an experimental study, a researcher isolates a
>neuromuscular preparation and stimulates the motor nerve
>in the presence of a small dose of tubocurarine to
>achieve a submaximal response. The resulting
>end-potential (EPP) is measured in both 0.9% saline
>(control) and in the presence of neostigmine
>(experimental). The EPP of the experimental group is
>increased in both amplitude and duration. Which of the
>following molecular targets is the most likely cause of
>this effect?
> A) Acetylcholinesterase
> B) Choline acetyltransferase
> C) Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
> D) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
> E) voltage-sensitive sodium channel
>
3.> A 24-year-old man dies suddenly. At autopsy, there is
>evidence of cocaine abuse but no evidence of gross or
>microscopic structural alterations of the heart. Which of
>the following is the most likely cause of the cardiac
>malfunction in this man?
> A) Blockade of Ca2+ channels
> B) Blockade of dopamine synthesis
> C) Potentiation of norepinephrine and blocking of its
>presynaptic uptake
> D) Potentiation of serotonin at postsynaptic sites in
>the atrioventricular node
> E) Stroke due to malignant hypertension
>
>
4> A 56-year-old man with extensive coronary artery
>atherosclerotic disease has evidence of coronary
>vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia. The most likely
>cause of the vasoconstriction is failure of the
>endothelial cell layer of the diseased coronary arteries
>to produce a substance with which of the following
>actions?
> a. activation of Na+ channels
> b. closure of K+ channels
> c. opening L-type Ca++ channelsà irreversible : prostaglandine
> d. stimulation of ATP accumulation
e. stimulation of cGMP accumulation


5. The high metabolic needs of the heart and its relative exclusive reliance on aerobic metabolims require a high degree of regulation of coronary blood flow to maintain myocardial oxygen demands. As such, coronary perfusion
A. is greatest during systole
B. increases directly over a borad range of arterial pressures
C. is controlled mainly by local metabolic factors
D. is greatly decreased by direct sympathetic stimulation of resistance vessels
E is achieved primarily via collateral vessels in healthy subject.

6. The swollen-belly appearance of patients suffering from some forms of malnutrion may be ascribed to:
A. lowered hydrostatic capillary pressure
B decreased plasma oncotic pressure (correct answer)
C. elevated interstitial hydrostatic pressure
D. increased interstitial oncotic pressure
E increased contraction of lymphatic smooth muscle

7. Which of the following statements more accurately describes spesific features of neuromuscullar transmission?
A. Each muscle fiber contains multiple axon terminals
B. The end plate is highly enriched in electrically excitable gates
C Enzymatic degradation of the transmitter can terminate transmission.
D Acetylcoline causes chloride channels to open as result of membrane depolarization.

8. In Respiratory Distress Syndrome there's tendency to develop pulmonary edema. Why? hydrostatic forces: left ventricular failure or stenosis of the mitral valve

9. In which type of blood vessel is the mean linear velocity of a red blood
cell the lowest?(
A. Aorta and large arteries
B. Arterioles
C. Capillaries
D. Small arteries
E. Vena cavae and large veins
F. Venules and small veins

10. A healthy, 25-year-old female medical student has an exercise stress
test at a local health club. Which of the following is most likely to occur
in this woman's skeletal muscles during exercise?
A. Decreased blood flow
B. Decreased metabolite concentrations
C. Increased arteriolar diameter
D. Increased oxygen concentration
E. Increased vascular resistance

11. a 45 year old woman experiences blurred vision and difficulty swallowing after eating some home canned vegetables. these symptoms are followed by respiratory distress and flaccid paralysis

a. black widow spidertoxin
b. b. botulinum toxin
c. c. organophosphate ingestion
d. d. benxodiazepine ingestion
e. e. alfa bungarotoxin

12. . The following are true about an action potential in a nerve fibre:
a. it occurs when its membrane potential is hyperpolarized
b. it is associated with a transient increase in membrane
permeability to sodium à right answer!
c. there is a decreased in membrane permeability to
potassium
d. it has an amplitude which varies directly to the strength
of stimulus
e. it causes propagation of electrical current along the
nerve fibre

13. a 5 years old boy has history of growth retardation; pulmonary infections; and bulky, oily, malodorous stools which of the following test result would be expected in this patient?
a abnormarl sweat chloride test
b low c3 complement level
c abnormal nitroblue tetrazolium dye test
d positive wheel and flare reaction with antigen scratch testing
e sputum with gram positive diplococci

14. a 45 yeard old woman has an acute coronary occlusion. Within seconds, the ischemic region shows mitocondrial swelling and depletion if glycogen granules. which of the following metabolic events is the most likey cause of these cellular changes/?
a accumulation of free fatty acids
b atp depletionà page 8 pathology kaplan
c degradation of membrane phospholipid
d efflux of k
e infllux of na

15. Like single-unit smooth muscle, skeletal muscle fiber
A. uses myosin as site of calcium regulation
B. has similar thick and thin filaments
C. reveals spontaneous production of action potentials
D. maintains intrinsic tone
E. contracts in response to stretch of fibers

16. Actin is microfilament that is involved with which of the following activites:
a. ciliary beating
b. mitochondrial division
c. cell locomotion
d. mitotic spindle formation
e. vesicle transport in the neuronal axon

17. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein alter which of the following ion transport mechanisms?
A ) Ca2+-activated Cl– secretion
B ) Ca2+-activated Cl– uptake
C ) Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-stimulated Cl– secretion -à probably
D ) cAMP-stimulated Na+ secretion
E ) cAMP-stimulated Na+ uptake
(read Biochemistry! About cAMP!)

18. 21 yr old man sudden oneset of fever,sweating,cyanosis,tachycardia,taqchypnea,uns able bp,and muscle rigidity after halothane and succibylcholine for an appendectomy, what is the abnormality
a) ca2+ relaesing channelsà right answer
b) carnitine palmitoyltransferase
c)mitochondrial ATP ase
d)Na-K ATP ase
e0phosphorylase beta-kinase

19. action potential in excitable cells is a result of changes in which of the following?
a) Energy driven mem pumps
b) ionic equilibrium potential
c) membrane ionic conductancesà right answer
d) transmembrane concentration gradient

20. The sequence of events in muscle contraction, except :
a. action potential depolarise the T-tubules
b. depolarisation of T-tubules release calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum
c. calcium binds to the troponin-tropomycin complex
d. actin combines with myosin ATP leading to crossbridge activation
e. calcium moves back into sarcoplasmic reticulum by passive transport

21. All of these are in the neurones: …except
a. the axons convey impulse away from the cell body
b. neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cell bodies and then
transported to the axons
c. the condition velocity increases with fibre diameter
d. the excitability is increased if the extracellular calcium
concentration is decreased
e. there is an influx of Na+ and efflux of K+ during depolarization

22. Smooth muscle: ..except
a. has a longer action potential than skeletal muscle
b. has a longer action potential than cardiac muscle
c. contains pacemaker cells
d. contains bridges between cells
e. contains no sarcomeres

23. Hypoxia decreases cellular levels of ATP and inhibits the normal function
of the plasma membrane oua****-sensitive Na-K-ATPase pump.
Which one of the listed changes will result from decreased function of this
membrane ion pump?
a. Decreased sodium ions inside Decreased potassium ions outside
the cell the cell
b. Decreased sodium ions inside Increased potassium ions outside
the cell the cell
c. Increased sodium ions inside Increased potassium ions outside
the cell the cell
d. Increased sodium ions outside Increased potassium ions inside
the cell the cell
e. Increased sodium ions outside Decreased potassium ions inside
the cell the cell

24. If the extracellular K+ concentration is increased from 4 meq/L to 10 meq/L,
a. The membrane potential will become more negative
b. The sodium conductance will increase
c. The potassium conductance will increase
d. The membrane will become more excitable
e. Depolarisation and more of the efflux, excitable
f.The Na-K pump will become inactivated

25. A 65-year-old male visits his family practitioner for a yearly
examination. Measurement of his blood pressure reveals a systolic
pressure of 190 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg. His
heart rate is 74/min and pulse pressure is 90 mm Hg. A decrease in
which of the following is the most likely explanation for the high pulse
pressure? (already asked)
A. Arterial compliance
B. Cardiac output
C. Myocardial contractility
D. Stroke volume
F. Total peripheral resistanc

26. The upstroke of the ventricular action potential is primarily due to which one of the following actions? (
A. inward flux of Ca 2+
B. inward K+ current
C. Outward K+ current
D. Outwart Na+ current
E. Inward Na+ current

27. Which of the following statements regarding coronary artery blood flow in a healthy person is true?
A. During systole, coronary artery blood flow is uniform from subendocardial to epicardial regions of the left ventricle.
B. B. myocardial oxygen extraction, not coronary artery blood flow, increases during exercises,
C. Coronary artery blood flow is directly proportional to arterial blood pressure over a range pressures within 20-30 mmHg of normal.
D. Coronary artery blood flow is proportional to myocardial oxygen demands.
E. Coronary artery blood flow is maximal during systole.

28. The high metabolic needs of the heart and its relative exclusive reliance of aerobic metabolism require a high degree of regulation of coronary blood flow to maintain myocardial oxygen demands. As such, coronary perfusion
A. is greatest during systole
B. Increases directly over a broad range of arterial pressures
C. Is controlled mainly by local metabolic factors
D. Is greatly decreased by direct sympathetic simulation of resistance vessels
E. Is achieved primarily via collateral vessels in healthy subject.

29. Which of the following statements regarding contraction in skeletal and smooth muscles is correct?
A. The same tension of contraction requires more energy in smooth muscle than in skeletal muscle
B. The maximum force of contraction is greater in smooth muscle than in skeletal muscle
C. The contractions are faster in smooth muscle than in skeletal muscle
D. The smooth muscle can shorten a smaller percentage of its length while maintaining the full force of contraction than can skeletal muscle

30. A man drinks 2 L of water to replenish the fluids lost by sweating during
a period of exercise. Compared with the situation prior to the period of
sweating,
a. His intracellular fluid will be hypertonic
b. His extracellular fluid will be hypertonic
c. His intracellular fluid volume will be greater
d. His extracellular fluid volume will be greater

31. A 22-year-old man comes to the emergency room of your hospital
because he has a diffuse, erythematous rash involving nearly all of his body.
His total WBC count is greater than 100,000 cells/mm3. He also complains
of bone pain, severe irritability, weakness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting,
constipation, photophobia, and polyuria. His electrocardiogram (ECG)
shows shortening of the QT interval, prolongation of the PR interval, and
nonspecific T wave changes. The most likely cause of his symptoms is
a. Hypercalcemia
b. Hypocalcemia
c. Hypophosphatemia
d. Hyperkalemia

32. During cardiac catheterization in a normal person, the blood sample withdrawn from the catheter shows 60% oxygen saturation, and the pressure recording shows oscillations from a maximum of 26 to minimum of 14 mmHg. The catheter tip was most likely located in the
a. ductus arteriosus
b. forumen ovale
c. left atrium
d. pulmonary artery
e. right atrium.

33. Which of the following special maneuvers intensifies the murmur associated with aortic insufficiency?
A the patient rolls into the left lateral decubitus position
B. while sitting, the patient leans forward, exhales and holds his or her breath
C. While sitting, the patient expires againts a closed glottis ( i.e bears down)
D.the patients stands
E. the patient excercises briefly

34. Under resting conditions, the arteriovenous O2 difference is greatest in the
a. brain
b. heart muscles
c. kidney.
d. skeletal muscle
e. skin.

35. The high metabolic needs of the heart and its relative exclusive reliance on aerobic require a high degree pf regulation of coronary blood flow to maintain myocardial oxygen demands. As such, coronary perfusion
A. is greatest during systole
B. increases directly over a broad range of arterial pressures
C. is controlled mainly by local metabolic factors
D. is greatly decreased by direct sympathetic stimulation of resistance vessels
E. is achieved primaily via collateral vessels in healthy subjects.

36. During moderate physical exercise, which of the following will increase in proportion to the cardiac output?
a. Blood flow to the exercising muscle.
b. heart rate.
c. renal blood flow
d. splanchinc blood flow
e. stroke volume

37. Poisoning the Na+–K+ pump with digitalis causes
which of the following changes in large axons? (already asked)à digitalis
(A) Decreased intracellular Cl– concentration
(B) Decreased intracellular K+ concentration
(C) Decreased intracellular Na+ concentration
(D) Immediate block in propagation of action
potentials
(E) Slow hyperpolarization of membrane potentials

38. The plateau phase (phase 2) of the ventricular action potential is associated with each of the following EXCEPT
a. decreased K permeability
b. inactivated Na channel
c. increased Ca permeability.
d. the Q wave on the electrocardiogram
e. the ST interval on the electrocardiogram

39.Depolarization of a cardiac purkinje fiber membrane from its normal resting potential would occur as a result of
1. Doubling the extra cellular concentration of K
2. Decreasing the intracellular concentration of K
3. Increasing the permeability to Na
4. Decreasing the permeability to Cl

40. In humans, sympathetic imput to the heart increases the
1. Strenght of ventricular contraction
2. Amplitude of the ventricular action potential
3. Rate of rise of ventricular pressure development
4. Duration of ventricular contraction
Answer: B

41.The following data are obtained during evaluation of an 18-year-old woman:
Blood pressure (mm Hg) O2 saturation (%)
Right atrium 7 (N=5) 90 (N=75)
Right ventricle 35/7 (N=25/5) 90 (N=75)
Pulmonary artery 35/8 (N=25/15) 90 (N=75)
Left atrium 7 (N=9) 95 (N=95)
Left ventricle 110/7 (N=110/9) 95 (N=95)
Aorta 110/75 (N=110/75) 95 (N=95)

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
(A) Atrial septal defect
(B) Mitral stenosis
(C) Patent ductus arteriosus
(D) Pulmonic stenosis
(E) Tricuspid insufficiency

42. A 42-year-old woman complains to her physician of
muscle fatigue. A series of tests confirm a diagnosis of
myasthenia gravis.Which of the following is most likely
decreased in this woman with inspiratory muscle weakness
(A) Functional residual capacity
(B) Lung compliance
(C) Lung elastic recoil
(D) Residual volume
(E) Vital capacity

43. A 40-year-old man is admitted to the hospital because
of chronic cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function
tests and an arterial blood sample reveal the following:
End tidal air PO2 = 95 mm Hg
Vital capacity = 1.5 L below normal
FRC = 0.8 L above normal
RV = 0.4 L above normal
PaO2 = 72 mm Hg
PaO2 (breathing enriched O2) = 95 mm Hg
(FRC = functional residual capacity; RV =
residual volume; a = systemic arterial)
Which of the following is the most likely cause of the
patient’s hypoxemia?
(A) Decreased pulmonary diffusion capacity
(B) Generalized hypoventilation
(C) Left-to-right shunt
(D) Right-to-left shunt
(E) Very low V • /Q• ratio

44. A 74-year-old woman has smoked 60 cigarettes per day
for 35 years. She visits her physician because of shortness
of breath. The physician sends her to a pulmonary function
laboratory for a complete workup. The data below
show pulmonary volumes and capacities obtained using
simple spirometry and plethysmography.
Functional residual capacity 4.0 L
Inspiratory reserve volume 1.0 L
Inspiratory capacity 1.5 L
Vital capacity 3.0 L
Which of the following is the residual volume of this
patient (in L)?
(A) 2.0
(B) 2.5
(C) 3.0
(D) 3.5
(E) 4.0

45. Which one of the following statement concerning expiration is correct? (already asked)
A. At lung volumes closes to VC, expiratory air flow is independent of expiratory effort
B. At lung volumes closes to VC, airwary resistance is at is peak
C. At lung volumes closes to VC, expiratory air flow increases with increasing pleural pressures
D. At 50% of VC, increased expiratory effort result in decreased airway resistance
E. At lung volumes closes to residual volume, the elastic recoil of the chest wall is directed inward

46. A 35-year old male seeks medical attention for breathlessness on exertion. He has never smoked cigarettes and has not been coughing. One sibling died of respiratory failure at 40 years of age. His three children are healthy. Physical examination reveals the patient to be tachypneic as he exhales through pursed lips. His chest is tympanitic to percussion, and breath sounds are poorly heard auscultation. Chest x-ray shows flattened diaphragms with peripheral attentuation of bronchovascular markings that is most noticeable at the lung bases.
Expected results of pulmonary function testing of this patient would include
A. increased lung elastic recoil
B. increased total lung capacity
C. reduced functional residual capacity
D. increased vital capacity
E. increased diffusing capacity

47. Which of the following physiologic stimuli will result in decreased pulmonary vascular resistance?
/ A. Decreased cardiac output
/ B. Increased cardiac output
/ C. Low O2 tension
/ D. Lung volumes near residual volume (RV)
/ E. Lung volumes near total lung capacity (TLC)

48. A patient's airway pressure is being measured while he is breathing
into a spirometer. Which of the following lung volumes would be
associated with an airway pressure of +30 cm H2O?
A.Functional residual capacity
B. Minimal volume
C. Residual volume
D. Tidal volume
E. Total lung capacity

49. A pulmonologist is testing a patient's lung volumes and capacities
using simple spirometry. Which of the following lung volumes or
capacities cannot be measured directly using this technique? (already asked)
A. Expiratory reserve volume
B. Functional residual capacity
C. Inspiratory reserve volume
D. Tidal volume
E. Vital capacity

50. Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli and is manifested by widespread narrowing of the airway. Which of the following results of pulmonary function tests during an acute asthma attack will be demonstrated?
A. increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second
B. increased forced vital capacity
C. decreased FEV1/FVC
D. decreased TLC

51. A patient is on a ventilator. The patients anatomic dead space is 150 mL and the ventilator dead space is 250 ml. The ventilatory rate is set at 20 per minute. How should the output (tidal volume) of the ventilator be adjusted so that alveolar minute ventilation is 4L/minute?
A. 150 ml
B. 250 ml
C. 400 ml
D. 600 ml
E. 1000 ml

52. A patient is given 100% oxygen to breathe and his arterial oxygen tension (P02) is considerably less than that of a normal subject. The patient’s hypoxemia is likely to be secondary to
A. a shunt
B. hypoventilation
C. diffusion impairment
D. ventilation perfusion abnormality
E. retention of carbon dioxide

53. A 34-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department after she collapsed when she returned from a nonstop flight from New Delhi to New York City. She has smoked 1 pack of cigarettes daily for 16 years. She is sexually active and uses an oral contraceptive. Her pulse is 125/min, and blood pressure is 75/50 mm Hg. Physical
Examination shows jugular venous distention. The lungs are clear to auscultation. Pulmonary artery catheterization shows a pulmonary systolic diastolic arterial pressure of 50/25 mm Hg (N=15-30/3-12) and a pulmonary artery wedge pressure of 5 mm Hg (N=8-)
Which of the following is the most likely cause of her pulmonary Hypertension?
A) Decreased cardiac output
8) Increased left atrial pressure
C) Increased left ventricular diastolic pressure
D) Increased pulmonary blood flow
E) Increased pulmonary venous resistance
F) Occlusion of pulmonary arteries
G) Pericardial tamposnade

54. A 28 years old man is taken to ER after being lost in the desert for 2 days. Then patient complaints of a headache and pain from multiple wounds. On examination, the patient has a fever and is severely dehydrated. Which one of the following statement is most likely correct?
a. patient should be given a NSAID drug to relieve his headache and fever
b. patient’s levels of angiotensin II are low
c. patient’s ADH levels are below normal
d. patient’s kidney are producing higher levels of prostaglandins than normal
e. patient has reduced serum sodium levels and bradycardia

55. Which of the following statements about autoregulation of the GFR is true?
A. a decrease in the GFR leads to an increase in Na Cl concentration at the macula densa.
B. Decrease in arterial pressure leads to a decrease in renin secretion
C. Angiotensin II regulates efferent arteriolar resistance
D. A decrease in Na Cl concentration at the macula densa increases afferent arteriolar resistance
E. An increase in NaCl concentration at the macula densa decreases angiotensin II synthesis.

56. Ingestion of 150 Meq Na+/day is usually balanced by excretion of a similar amount in urine. Because the glomerular filtrate normally contins 26000 mEq Na+/day, several important Na reabsorbing mechanism have evolved, including which of the following?
a. passive transport of Na+ from inside proximal epithelial cells to interstitial spaces
b. Active transport of Na+ by the Na-K dependent ATPase basolateral membrane in the proximal tubular epithelium.
c. Passive transport in the thick segment of the loop of henle
d. Hormone independent passive reabsorption in the distal tubular epithelium.

57. Which of the following factors decreases GFR?
a. constriction of the afferent arteriole
b. increase in renal blood flow
c. increase in systemic arterial pressure from 100 to 150 nm
d. constriction of the efferent arteriole

58. Concentration of which of the following substances decreases drastically in the proximal tubule under normal conditions?
A. Na+
B. Urea
C. Creatinine
D. Glucose
E. Cl-

59. A healthy adult participating in a clinical research study increases his
daily sodium intake greatly, but his plasma sodium remains at a
constant level. Which of the following substances is most responsible
for this constancy in plasma sodium concentration when large
amounts of sodium are ingested?
A. Aldosterone
B. Angiotensin II
C. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
D. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
E. Epinephrine

60. A normal, well-hydrated individual has a plasma osmolarity
of 300 mOsmol/L. A drug is then given to increase
urine flow from 2 mL/min to 6 mL/min but to decrease
urine osmolarity from 800 mOsmol/L to 400 mOsmol/L.
Which of the following most likely also occurred?
(A) Excretion of dissolved substances decreased but
osmolar clearance increased
(B) Excretion of dissolved substances and osmolar
clearance both increased
(C) Excretion of dissolved substances and osmolar
clearance both decreased
(D) Excretion of dissolved substances increased and
osmolar clearance decreased
(E) The drug eliminated the osmolar gradient in the
medullary interstitium

HAVE A NICE DAY [email protected]@@@@[email protected]@@@

superoxide
10-08-2006, 10:54 PM
I'll get this started:

1)c
2)a
3)c
4)e
5)c
6)b;) (this dude has hypoalbuminemia due to kwashiokor. Albumin normally keeps fluid in the vessels. when its defecient, you get edema)
7)c
8) -
9)c
10)c

st_55
10-10-2006, 04:18 PM
thanks for the questions. they are very helpful...but are u going to post the answers?

dominicandoc
10-20-2006, 03:55 AM
CAn you pleaase post the anwsers!!
thanks







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