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  1. #1
    The Authors Guest

    Helpful Mnemonics for Step 2 CS

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    We have been asked quite a few questions about helpful mnemonics for Step 2 CS. We have compiled several of them here. If you find them helpful, consider jotting them down on a sheet of paper as you enter the standardized patient exam room so that you can use them while remaining calm. Here they are:


    PAM HUGS FOSS (a mnemonic for past medical history)

    P-revious history of smilar symptoms
    A-llergies (medications, foods, over-the-counters, etc.)
    M-edications (mediations the patient may be taking, including non-prescription meds)

    H-ospitalization (previous hospitalizations for any illnesses or surgeries)
    U-rinary changes (frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria, foul-smelling urine)
    G-astrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, bowel habit changes, melena, etc.)
    S-leep pattern (insomnia, early waking)

    F-amily history (any illnesses in the family, particulary first-degree relatives)
    O-b/Gyn history (last menstrual period, pregnancies, miscarriages, abortions, length of periods)
    S-exual habits (STDs, male/female preference)
    S-ocial history (smoking, alcohol, drugs, occupation)


    LIQOR AAA (useful for asking about pain)

    L-ocation of the symptom (abdomen, back, leg)
    I-intesity (use a scale from 1-10)
    Q-uality of the symptom (sharp, dull, crampy, burning)
    O-nset of the symptoms (when did it start, what precipitated the pain?)
    R-adiation of the pain (radiation to the back, arm, groin, etc.)
    A-ssociated symptoms (nausea, dysuria, chest pain, shortness of breath)
    A-lleviating factors (leaning forward, lying still, using a hot pack)
    A-ggravating factors (moving, eating, physical effort)


    PQRST (also helpful for asking about pain)

    P-osition
    Q-uality (sharp, dull, crampy, burning)
    R-adiation (radiation of the pain to the back, arm, groin, etc.)
    S-everity (use a scale from 1-10)
    T-timing (worse with meals, bowel movements, time of day, etc.)


    SODAS (useful for obtaining a detailed social history)

    S-moking (cigarettes, marijuana, how much, how many years)
    O-ccupation (what does the patient do for a living?)
    D-rugs (what drug, how do they use it, any IV drug use?)
    A-lcohol (whaty type of alcohol, how often, how much, consider doing a CAGE questionnaire)
    S-exual history (number of partners, protection, STDs, pregancies, etc.)

  2. #2
    Unregistered Guest

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    This post was taken from http://www.step2cs.blogspot.com

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