3. What is the principal site of therapeutic action of aspirin in the diagram of a blood vessel?
8. A 58-year-old man comes to the physician because of blood in his urine. He had a nephrectomy 10 years ago because of injuries sustained in a motor vehicle collision. Evaluation shows renal cell carcinoma in his remaining kidney and pulmonary metastases. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy is started. Three weeks later, CT scan confirms regression of the tumor. Which of the following most likely caused the regression?
A ) An effect of IL-2 on tumor vascularization
B ) Cytotoxic effects of IL-2 on tumor cells
C ) Increased natural killer cell activity
D ) Induction of antitumor antibodies by IL-2
E ) Induction of B-lymphocyte proliferation
F ) Spontaneous remission
14. A genetic element is found to contain several genes and to catalyze its own movement within and between chromosomes. Inverted 35-nucleotide repeats are present at the ends of this genetic element. This genetic element in hepatocytes is incapable of replicating independently. Based on this description, this genetic element is best categorized as which of the following?
A ) Complex transposon
B ) Insertion sequence
C ) Plasmid
D ) Regulon
34. A 59-year-old man comes to the physician because he has had malaise, fatigue, and anorexia since losing his job 3 months ago. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is increased. Which of the following questions is most appropriate to initiate a discussion about his use of alcohol?
A ) "Do you think you are a problem drinker?"
B ) "How much do you drink in a typical week?"
C ) "Is there something you have not told me so far?"
D ) "So, do you like to hit the bottle sometimes?"
E ) "What is your favorite drink?"
F ) "You are not a drinker, are you?"
43. A 45-year-old woman says that her feet feel hot. The skin of her feet is pink, dry, and hot. Which of the following fibers are most likely to be disrupted?
A ) Autonomic afferent
B ) Postganglionic sympathetic
C ) Preganglionic parasympathetic
D ) Somatic cutaneous afferent
44. The diagram shows a liver lobule. Long-term destruction of the hepatocytes, collapse of the histologic architecture, and production of fibrous material is most likely to result in which of the following?
A ) Decreased intestinal motility
B ) Gallstones
C ) Increased central venous pressure
D ) Increased hepatic venous pressure
E ) Increased portal pressure
45. Tumor necrosis factor is the primary mediator of host responses initiated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leading to septic shock. LPS-mediated activation of transcription most likely depends on which of the following transcription factors?
A ) c-ras
B ) Nuclear factor-kappa B
C ) p53
D ) Rb protein
E ) VP-16 (etoposide)
46. A 15-year-old girl has had a sore throat and temperatures to 37.7 C (100 F) for 3 days. Physical examination shows erythematous pharyngeal mucosa and cervical lymphadenopathy. Leukocyte count is 12,000/mm3 with 60% lymphocytes. A slide agglutination test is positive for antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus. This virus is most likely to replicate initially in which of the following cells?
A ) Peripheral blood B lymphocytes
B ) Peripheral blood monocytes
C ) Peripheral blood T lymphocytes
D ) Pharyngeal B lymphocytes
E ) Pharyngeal monocytes
F ) Pharyngeal T lymphocytes
47. A 55-year-old man with diabetes mellitus has burning dysesthesias over the lateral aspect of his left lower leg. Capsaicin-containing cream is effective in alleviating the symptoms. The substance most likely to have caused the dysesthesias is
A ) ADH (vasopressin)
B ) angiotensin II
C ) dopamine
D ) inositol
E ) neuropeptide Y
F ) nitric oxide
G ) norepinephrine
H ) substance P
49. A 35-year-old married man comes to the physician because of a 2-day history of burning with urination. He tells the physician that he had an affair while on a business trip 2 weeks ago. The next day, the patient's wife telephones the physician, stating, "My husband saw you yesterday. Does he have a sexually transmitted disease?" Which of the following responses by the physician is most appropriate?
A ) "I recommend that you see your gynecologist as soon as possible."
B ) "I suggest that you ask your husband if he has had any sexual relations outside the marriage."
C ) "I'm sorry, but I will need your husband's permission to discuss his care with you."
D ) "I'm sure everything is going to be all right."
E ) "Perhaps you and your husband should seek marital counseling."