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Thread: 204 questions on Microbiology

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    204 questions on Microbiology

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    You have 204 questions in this exam.


    1. Which of the following extracellular enzymes produced by Group A streptococci is called "spreading factor," an enzyme important in skin and soft tissue infection?
    A. Streptokinase
    B. Hyaluronidase
    C. M Protein
    D. Deoxyribonuclease C
    E. None of the above



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    2. All of the following statements about the M-protein of Group A Streptococci are correct EXCEPT:
    A. The amino terminal portion (distal portion) is variable, accounting for over 80 distinct serotypes.
    B. M proteins allow streptococci to resist phagocytosis.
    C. Antibodies to M protein confer type-specific immunity.
    D. M protein is the major virulence factor of Group A streptococci.
    E. M protein is the major constituent of the capsule of Group A streptococci.



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    Correct Answer: E






    3. A 12 year old boy presents with acute onset of sore throat, fever to 38.9 degrees C and painful anterior cervical lymphadenopathy. On exam the pharynx is red and swollen and the tonsils are covered with yellow-white exudate. The child also has halitosis. Which of the following non-suppurative complications are of concern?
    A. Sinusitis
    B. Acute rheumatic fever alone
    C. Acute glomerulonephritis alone
    D. Acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis
    E. Scarlet fever alone



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    4. Which of the following statements about Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) is not correct?
    A. They are important causes of toxic strep syndrome.
    B. They are frequent colonizers of the female genital tract.
    C. Screening for this pathogen during pregnancy has reduced the incidence of neonatal sepsis.
    D. These organisms are b-hemolytic.
    E. They are important causes of urinary tract infections and bacteremia in elderly and diabetic adults.



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    Correct Answer: A






    5. Which of the following statements about the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is not correct?
    A. It is a protein-conjugated, polysaccharide vaccine.
    B. It is poorly immunogenic in young children and immunocompromised hosts.
    C. It is routinely recommended for immune competent adults and children >2 yrs. of age at risk for serious pneumococcal disease.
    D. It protects against the major serotypes of pneumococci causing infection.
    E. An adult with asplenia would be a candidate for this vaccine.



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: A






    6. What is the O antigen of Enterobacteriaceae?
    A. Cell surface polysaccharide
    B. A channel controlling substance taken into the organism.
    C. A flagellar protein
    D. A peptidoglycan matrix important for cellular rigidity
    E. Cell wall lipopolysaccharide



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: E






    7. All Enterobacteriaceae share all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
    A. Ferment glucose
    B. Reduce nitrates to nitrites
    C. Oxidase positive
    D. Gram negative
    E. Rod-shaped (bacilli)



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: C






    8. Which of the following virulence factors of E. coli is important for attachment to host epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections?
    A. Aerobactin
    B. Alpha hemolysin
    C. Urease
    D. K1 antigen
    E. Pili



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: E






    9. This urinary pathogen "swarms" across agar surfaces and may cause bladder and renal calculi (stones).
    A. Citrobacter freundii
    B. Enterobacter aerogenes
    C. Serratia marcescens
    D. Klebsiella oxytoca
    E. Proteus mirabilis



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: E






    10. Which of the following statements regarding Enterotoxigenic E. coli are CORRECT?
    A. They are important causes of traveler's diarrhea.
    B. Transmission occurs from ingestion of contaminated food and water.
    C. Disease is caused by production of one or both of two types of enterotoxins.
    D. None of the above are correct.
    E. All of the above are correct.



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: E






    11. R factors:
    A. Are small plasmids which encode resistance to only one type of antibiotic
    B. Contain plasmid elements (replication origins, incompatibility determinants, etc.) that were widespread in the pre-antibiotic era
    C. Represent genetically engineered cloning vectors which have escaped into pathogenic bacteria
    D. All of the above are correct



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    12. Movement of DNA from one bacteria to another through a tubular bridge or pilus:
    A. Conjugation
    B. Transposition
    C. Transfection
    D. Transduction



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    Correct Answer: A






    13. Which statement describing the potential advantages of DNA technologies over conventional culture-based methods is not true?
    A. Greater stability of samples during transport
    B. Potentially more sensitive detection
    C. More complete and accurate determination of organism resistance to antibiotics
    D. More rapid than culture



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: C






    14. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR):
    A. Has been adapted for accurate quantification of viruses
    B. May yield false positive results when amplicons contaminate clinical samples
    C. Offers detection sensitivity which often but not always exceeds that of culture
    D. All of the above



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    15. Which of the following is not one of Koch's postulates?
    A. The organism is regularly found in lesions of the disease
    B. The organism can be isolated from diseased tissues in pure culture on artificial media
    C. Inoculation of this pure culture produces a similar disease in experimental animals
    D. Treatment of the disease with a broad spectrum oral antimicrobial dependably eradicates the organism and cures the disease



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    Correct Answer: D






    16. The diagnosis of septicemia should be considered in patients who are at increased risk of blood stream infection (often secondary to local disease, such as urinary tract infection or pneumonia). All of the following are factors predisposing patients to septicemia except:
    A. Underlying diseases that appear to compromise host defenses, such as diabetes, lymphoma, etc.
    B. Patients with a polymorphonuclear leukocyte count less than 1000/mm3
    C. Patients with polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts of 10,000 to 20,000
    D. Long term therapy with broad-spectrum antimicrobials.



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    Correct Answer: C






    17. Physical findings and other factors that should suggest the presence of septicemia in a particular patient are all of the following except:
    A. Shaking chills, spiking fevers
    B. Conjunctivitis
    C. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    D. In elderly patients, decreased urine output or mental changes (confusion)



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    18. The most likely organism to be causing septicemia depends, among other things, on the patients' personal risk factors (e.g., their underlying disease), or lab data (e.g. their leukocyte count), "community risk factors" (such as what particular organisms inhabit the unit on which they happen to be in the hospital); and the physical examination. In a bone marrow transplant patient with a fever of 104 F, who has a white blood cell count of 345/mm3, there are scattered skin lesions comprised of a central blue area with an areola of redness (inflammation). You vaguely remember seeing such a lesion before in a lecture. "Ecthyma something or the other" is the best you can do..."Oh yes, with the blue, gangrene-like center, ecthyma gangrenosum, that's it" is your mental conversation. In this patient the most likely organism is:
    A. Reimerbacterium deaniium
    B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    C. Flavobacterium aniseum
    D. Godzillobacterium resistium



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    19. It is extremely difficult to eradicate staphylococcal infection in the presence of a foreign body. Thus, infected artificial joints and infected intravenous lines often must be removed in conjunction with optimal intravenous anti-staphylococcal therapy with oxacillin or nafcillin (sometimes in combination with rifampin) in order to eradicate such staphylococcal infections (and these attempts are not always successful). Staphylococcal infection of bone may persist for many years despite what should be optimal antimicrobial therapy. The most likely reason for this tenacity of staphylococcal osteomyelitis is:
    A. The Staphylococcal pilus gene is up-regulated by oxacillin
    B. Fragments of dead bone, called "involucrum" may act as a foreign body, and may have to be removed for optimal eradication of the staphylococcal infection.
    C. Staphylococci may be perceived by the patient's immune system as a positive factor, because the staphylococci produce an extracellular enzyme, obtundokinase, which makes the patient more alert.
    D. Staphylococci are such an integral part of our normal flora that they are treated as "self" rather than "non-self", and no immune reaction to them occurs.



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    20. A 42 year old woman who was complaining of shaking chills and fever went to the Salt Lake City Homeless clinic. She had enlarged lymph nodes in the right axilla. "Upstream" from the enlarged nodes was an ulcer on the top of the patient's right hand. When carefully questioned, the patient said she remembered being bitten there by an insect resembling a horsefly, but with yellow stripes on its abdomen; "Its what we used to call a deerfly," she added laconically. The patient denied any contact with rats or fleas. The patient's disease was most likely to be:
    A. Brucellosis
    B. Ulcero-glandular tularemia
    C. Pneumonic plague
    D. Relapsing fever



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    Correct Answer: B






    21. A 22 year old female graduate student who works in a day-care center comes to the emergency room where you are on duty. The woman complains of a sore throat, which she has had for two days, and it is not getting any better; further, in the last ten hours, the sore throat has been accompanied by a headache as well as nausea, and vomiting. On physical examination you note a BP of 90/65 and a respiratory rate of 30/min; the temperature is 104 degrees F. The neck is supple but there are tiny red spots distal to the BP cuff. Considering this patient's personal risk factors (her age) and her physical examination, it is clear that the most likely organism to be causing this patient's illness is:
    A. Brucella abortus
    B. Staphylococcus aureus
    C. Neisseria meningitidis
    D. Brucella suis



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: C






    22. A 13 year old boy appears in your emergency room complaining of blurred vision and a dry mouth. His companions say that he has been muttering about a white condor that is going to pick him up and take him to a mountain top. He was a member of a scout troop that has been hiking and camping in the Capitol Reef area of Utah. On physical examination he is afebrile, has a rather ruddy complexion and his pupils are dilated and fixed. He adamantly denies eating any canned food or processed meat, but confesses that on a "dare" he ate a large trumpet-like white flower that his patrol members brought back from a hike in the desert. The most likely explanation for his illness is:
    A. A food-borne infection with E. coli 0157:H7
    B. Ingestion of Datura stramonium with a resulting anticholinergic and hallucinogenic reaction
    C. He has a malignant brain tumor
    D. He has been bitten by a brown recluse spider



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    23. Which of the following diseases are not transmitted by ticks:
    A. Ulceroglandular tularemia
    B. Bubonic plague
    C. Relapsing fever
    D. Lyme disease



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    Correct Answer: B






    24. A 20 year old patient comes to the homeless clinic with a skin abscess on the right arm. A swab from the intact skin overlying this abscess grows coagulase negative staphylococci. An aspirate obtained sterilely with a needle and syringe grows Staphylococcus aureus. About these 2 organisms in this patient you can say:
    A. Both are normal flora and contaminated the specimens sent to the lab
    B. The staph aureus is a pathogen and the coagulase negative staph is not
    C. The coagulase negative staphylococcus is a pathogen
    D. The coagulase negative staphylococcus is an opportunistic pathogen



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    Correct Answer: B






    25. A person who has a normal healthy immune system acquires a new strain of E. coli that now lives in his gastrointestinal tract. This individual is not ill. A second person with an acute leukemia and no white blood cells acquires the same organism, develops diarrhea followed by hypotension, bacteremia, sepsis, and death. This organism is:
    A. Normal flora for both individuals
    B. A pathogen for both individuals
    C. An opportunistic pathogen for both individuals
    D. One with a low degree of virulence



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    Correct Answer: D






    26. A 25 year old woman has a 4 year old son who is now recovering from Group A strep pharyngitis. Out of curiosity, the pediatrician does a throat culture on the mother which is positive for Group A strep even though she doesn't have a sore throat. The pediatrician also does an ASO titer and anti DNAse B assay on her both of which are negative. At this point we would say that she:
    A. Has asymptomatic infection
    B. Has opportunistic infection
    C. Is a carrier
    D. Is immunosuppressed



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    Correct Answer: C






    27. Characteristics of a bacterial capsule include:
    A. All bacteria have one
    B. It is composed of peptidoglycan
    C. It is an important mechanism for protecting a bacteria against ingestion by PMNs
    D. It is what causes the gram stain reaction



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    Correct Answer: C






    28. As a budding basic scientist you work in a research laboratory and discover a chemical that removes the cell wall from bacteria but leaves the organism undamaged otherwise. Things that the bacteria will lose because of this include:
    A. The ability to stain gram positive: all will look gram negative
    B. The ability to move
    C. The ability to have a gram stain result
    D. The ability to attach to other cells



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    Correct Answer: C






    29. Under the electron microscope you keep at home next to your MP3 player you look at a single bacterium living in your mouth. You see a single polar flagellum stretching off from one end looking very much like a tail. A characteristic of this organism should be:
    A. An ability to stay in one place for a very long time
    B. An ability to move in the direction opposite the flagellum
    C. An ability to avoid ingestion by PMNs
    D. An ability to induce a large antibody response



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    Correct Answer: B






    30. On the same day the clinical laboratory identifies two strains of the same bacterial species. One of these strains has pili on the surface; the other does not. In terms of the clinical status of the two patients it is likely that:
    A. The patient with the piliated strain is ill, the other patient is not
    B. The patient with the piliated strain is not ill, the other patient is
    C. Both patients are ill since pili do not correlate with virulence
    D. The patient with the piliated strain is a child, the other patient is an adult



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    Correct Answer: A






    31. While you are on your obstetrics rotation you deliver a healthy appearing bouncing baby boy to a 19 year old mother. Three days later the baby becomes lethargic, has a high temperature and vomits. A lumbar puncture shows that the infant has bacterial meningitis. A gram stain of spinal fluid shows short gram positive rods. This organism is:
    A. Listeria monocytogenes
    B. Group B streptococcus
    C. Most likely a contaminant
    D. Anaerobic



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    Correct Answer: A






    32. A 30 year old woman is admitted to the hospital with a fever. She was recently diagnosed with acute leukemia and finished a course of chemotherapy last week. As a result of her treatment she now has essentially no white blood cells. As part of her workup you perform 2 blood cultures, a sputum culture, a urine culture, and you obtain a chest x-ray. Of all of these tests, the only positive result is one blood culture growing a gram positive bacillus. This bacillus is:
    A. The most likely cause of the fever
    B. Most likely a contaminant
    C. An indication that the patient has meningitis
    D. Most likely an organism she acquired from the hands of a health care provider the last time she was in the hospital



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    Correct Answer: B






    33. You are interested in the microbiology culture results on one of your patients and come to the microbiology laboratory to get an update. The microbiology lab supervisor tells you that your patient is growing gram positive bacilli from both blood cultures you drew and from a urine sample. He volunteers that he doesn't think you ought to worry since these results aren't likely to be important. His rationale is:
    A. Gram positive bacilli are so rare that they aren't likely to cause disease
    B. Gram positive bacilli do not cause urinary tract disease
    C. Gram positive bacilli are common contaminants so cultures growing them are not of much value
    D. Gram positive bacilli cause infections that patients usually resolve without antibiotic therapy, so there is no need to pursue this situation further



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    Correct Answer: C






    34. A 30 year old male comes to the hospital complaining of "stiffness". He was fine until 2 days ago when he started to have trouble opening his mouth. Later the same day his neck became stiff, and since then he has had increasing trouble with respirations. On exam he has a temperature of 101 degrees, his pulse is 110, his respirations are shallow and at 24/minute. His blood pressure the first time taken by a nurse was 90/50, but now is 120/80. He appears flushed and is sweating profusely. He does appear quite rigid and his face appears to be in a grimace. His reflexes are all hyperactive. You should be worried that this patient has:
    A. Food borne botulism
    B. Tetanus
    C. Gram negative sepsis
    D. Toxin mediated food poisoning



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    Correct Answer: B






    35. Infections caused by anaerobes are:
    A. Usually confined to the abdomen
    B. Never seen in the lung because of its excellent blood supply
    C. Mixed
    D. Rapidly progressive



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    Correct Answer: C






    36. The laboratory reports that both blood cultures that are drawn from a 15 year old girl are growing Bacteroides fragilis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute abdominal pain. You should be concerned that:
    A. She has acute gastroenteritis and the organism is entering the blood from the inflamed bowel endothelial surface
    B. She has a bowel perforation and intraabdominal tissue destruction with impaired vascular flow
    C. She has gram negative sepsis and the Bacteroides is a contaminant
    D. She has pelvic inflammatory disease with gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, and the Bacteroides is a contaminant



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    Correct Answer: B






    37. Anaerobic infections are:
    A. Often continuous to mucosal surfaces
    B. Associated with highly vascularized tissue
    C. Gram negative
    D. Most likely to occur in the lung with its high oxygen level



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    Correct Answer: A






    38. Specific organisms that are considered strict anaerobes include:
    A. E. coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae
    B. Bacteroides and Klebsiella
    C. Fusobacterium and Clostridium
    D. Peptostreptococcus and Nocardia



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    Correct Answer: C






    39. The single most important characteristic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholera is:
    A. Profound watery diarrhea
    B. Severe abdominal pain
    C. Massive bloody diarrhea
    D. Renal insufficiency



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    Correct Answer: A






    40. A 15 year old boy comes in to clinic with pain in his right ear. He is on his school swim team and spends about 2 hours per day in the pool. Along with the pain in his ear, he has watery drainage coming from the ear canal. On exam his vital signs are normal, and he appears healthy, but his left external ear looks quite red and there is copious watery, slightly green drainage coming from the ear. The organism mostly likely causing this is:
    A. Staph aureus
    B. Viridans group streptococci
    C. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa



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    Correct Answer: D






    41. Helicobacter pylori:
    A. Is the presumed cause of colon cancer
    B. Is the cause of most cases of acute food poisoning in the U.S.
    C. Is the cause of about 90% of peptic ulcers in the U.S.
    D. Is urease negative



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    Correct Answer: C






    42. Nonfermentative gram negative bacilli are:
    A. Strict aerobes
    B. Catalase negative
    C. Beta-hemolytic on sheep blood agar
    D. Spore forming



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    Correct Answer: A






    43. The normal habitats of nonfermentative bacteria include the following except:
    A. Contact lens solutions
    B. Hospital water sources
    C. House plants
    D. Reptiles



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    Correct Answer: D






    44. A 45 year old woman is admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. On the second hospital day it is clear that she has had a myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, on the same day she develops acute diarrhea. A stool culture grows Salmonella. This infection is:
    A. Hospital acquired
    B. Nosocomial
    C. Iatrogenic
    D. Community acquired



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    Correct Answer: D






    45. A common type of nosocomial infection is:
    A. Urinary tract infection
    B. Meningitis
    C. Cellulitis
    D. Gastroenteritis



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    Correct Answer: A






    46. You receive a urine culture report from the laboratory on a 45 year old patient who is a quadriplegic with an indwelling urinary tract catheter. The urine culture is growing >100,000 oxidase positive gram negative bacilli. The most likely organism is:
    A. E. coli
    B. Enterococcus
    C. Klebsiella
    D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa



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    Correct Answer: D






    47. An important means of preventing hospital acquired infections is:
    A. For health care workers to wash their hands between patient contacts
    B. For all patients to be placed in single rooms
    C. For all patients to receive a single dose of antibiotics at the time of admission
    D. An infection control program with one nurse for every 100 patients in the hospital



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    Correct Answer: A






    48. Each of the following statements concerning Q fever is correct EXCEPT:
    A. Rash is a prominent feature
    B. It is transmitted by respiratory aerosol
    C. Sheep and cattle are in important reservoir
    D. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii



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    Correct Answer: A






    49. Each of the following statements concerning epidemic typhus is correct EXCEPT:
    A. The disease is characterized by a rash that begins on the trunk and moves distally.
    B. The recrudescent form of the disease is called Brill-Zinsser
    C. The disease is caused by Rickettsia typhi
    D. The causative organism is transmitted to humans by lice



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    Correct Answer: C






    50. Which of the following statements is true concerning Q fever:
    A. The organism is transmitted by fleas
    B. Headache, fever, and petechial rash are characteristic features of the disease
    C. The chronic disease is call Brill-Zinsser
    D. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii



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    Correct Answer: D






    51. Which of the following is true regarding Rickettsia rickettsii:
    A. Highest attack rates occur in Colorado and Utah
    B. It can be transmitted by flying squirrels
    C. Sheep and cattle are important reservoirs
    D. It is transmitted by ticks



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    Correct Answer: D






    52. Which of the following is not transmitted by ticks:
    A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    B. Ehrlichiosis
    C. Rickettsia rickettsii
    D. Q fever



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    Correct Answer: D






    53. Which of the following statements concerning Bartonella henselae is correct:
    A. Causes Trench Fever
    B. Causes Bacillary Angiomatosis in AIDS patients
    C. Causes Oroya Fever
    D. Causes Veruga Peruana



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    Correct Answer: B






    54. The lesions of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients are very similar to the hemangiomatous nodules caused by:
    A. Rickettsia prowazekii
    B. Ehrlichia chaffeensis
    C. Bartonella bacilliformis
    D. Coxiella burnetii



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    Correct Answer: C






    55. Which of the following is transmitted by lice:
    A. Rickettsia prowazekii
    B. Rickettsia typhi
    C. Rickettsia rickettsii
    D. Rickettsia tsutsugamushi



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    Correct Answer: A






    56. A Utah congressman went to Japan as part of a delegation trying to sell the Great Basin National Park to the Japanese so that a Japanese mulching company can convert the 3000-year-old bristlecone pines in the Utah park into mulch for window boxes. About six weeks after some intense entertaining of the American delegation by the Japanese, the congressman develops a low-grade fever and a red-brown macular rash on the palms of his hand and the soles of his feet. He comes to your clinic for evaluation of the rash. He has only vague memory of a tea ceremony involving attractive young Japanese women. Which of the following actions is entirely without a rational basis in this medical situation and/or would not reflect good wisdom on your part:
    A. You put on gloves to exam the rash further, and wear the gloves to examine the patient's mouth.
    B. You order a serologic test for which the antigen is a non-organism-specific cardiolipin. If the previous test is positive, you may want to confirm it with an organism-specific test like the T. pallidum FTA-ABS test.
    C. You tell the patient not to have unprotected sex with anyone until the results of the serologic test in B are available.
    D. You tell the patient that this rash is most likely the initial manifestation of an infection that is likely to progress quickly, so immediate IV antibiotics are necessary



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    Correct Answer: D






    57. A 34 year-old geologist who works with an oil-exploration team in Central America comes to your clinic three weeks after returning from a trip to a dry, prairie-dog rich part of Central America. He remembers removing a tick from his leg four days before his departure from Central America, and having his first shaking chill on the plane home. He soon had a series of shaking chills, followed by fever for four days, and before he could get medical care, the fever and chills spontaneously resolved (went away) only to return for four days, then disappear again. His physical exam reveals no rash or organomegaly (enlarged organs such as liver or spleen), but he has a temperature of 104.8o F. As part of the patient's work up, you order a complete blood count. The technician doing the count calls you because there is a long curvaceous bacterium among the red blood cells on the smear of your patient's blood. The most likely cause of your patient's fever is:
    A. Treponema pertinue, causing "yaws"
    B. Borrelia recurrentis causing "relapsing fever"
    C. Treponema pallidum causing secondary syphilis
    D. Treponema carateum causing "Pinta"



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    Correct Answer: B






    58. Which of the following is the metabolically active form of Chlamydia trachomatis?
    A. Elementary body
    B. Jolley body
    C. Extracellular body
    D. Reticulate body
    E. None of the above



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    Correct Answer: D






    59. Which of the following pathogens is unlikely to be a cause of nongonococcal urethritis?
    A. Ureaplasma urealyticum
    B. Chlamydia trachomatis
    C. Mycoplasma hominis
    D. Mycoplasma genitalium
    E. Chlamydia pneumoniae



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    Correct Answer: E






    60. A 24-year-old pigeon fancier presents with fever to 40 degrees C, severe, diffuse headache, malaise, dry hacking cough and muscle aches. Lung exam reveals bilateral crackles and there is hepatosplenomegaly. The most likely pathogen causing this man's infection is:
    A. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    B. Chlamydia pneumoniae
    C. Chlamydia psittaci
    D. Franciscella tularensis
    E. Legionella pneumophila



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    Correct Answer: C






    61. Which of the following statements concerning Chlamydia trachomatis infections is NOT correct?
    A. Serology is the diagnostic test of choice in the diagnosis of acute infection.
    B. 50% of infants born to infected mothers during labor develop infections.
    C. Tetracycline's are useful for treatment of C. trachomatis infections.
    D. The clinical spectrum of C. trachomatis sexually transmitted diseases is similar to N. gonorrhoea
    E. e. Endemic trachoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide.



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    Correct Answer: A






    62. Which of the following statements regarding mycoplasmas is NOT correct?
    A. Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living micro-organisms.
    B. Mycoplasmas are resistant to cell wall active antibiotics.
    C. Mycoplasmas are common commensals of the respiratory and urogenital tracts.
    D. Mycoplasmas stain well with the Gram's stain.
    E. Mycoplasmas grow slowly on enriched media.



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    Correct Answer: D






    63. Which of the following is the most common clinical syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
    A. Hemolytic anemia
    B. Lobar pneumonia
    C. Tracheobronchitis
    D. Bullous myringitis
    E. Percarditis



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    Correct Answer: C






    64. Which of the following pathogens causes invasive joint disease in immuno-compromised hosts?
    A. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    B. Mycoplasma hominis
    C. Ureaplasma urealyticum
    D. Chlamydia pneumoniae
    E. None of the above



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    Correct Answer: B






    65. Which of the following are characteristics that are shared by Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum?
    A. Both cause post-partum fever.
    B. Ampicillin would be a reasonable choice for treatment.
    C. Both organisms are identified by production of urease.
    D. Both stimulate production of cold agglutinins.
    E. Both organisms grow well on sheep blood agar.



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    Correct Answer: A






    66. A 4-year-old child comes to the emergency room with a sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty breathing. On exam there is obvious difficulty each time the child tries to take in a breath with sounds suggesting obstruction. A lateral neck x-ray shows a swollen epiglottis. The organism most likely to cause this syndrome is:
    A. Neisseria meningitidis
    B. Group A streptococcus
    C. Haemophilus influenzae
    D. Candida albicans



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    Correct Answer: C






    67. The major virulence factor of Haemophilus influenzae type b is:
    A. Its surface pili
    B. Its surface polysaccharides
    C. Its cell wall
    D. Its cell membrane



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    Correct Answer: B






    68. Important in the laboratory detection of Haemophilus influenzae is that it is:
    A. Beta hemolytic on sheep blood agar
    B. Catalase positive
    C. Anaerobic
    D. Fastidious



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    69. A common characteristic of Capnocytophaga, Moraxella, and Eikenella is that they:
    A. Are anaerobic
    B. Are part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract
    C. Cause urinary tract infections
    D. Are gram positive



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    Correct Answer: B






    70. A common characteristic of Legionella species is that they:
    A. Are gram positive rods
    B. Are acid fast
    C. Require supplemental ingredients to grow them in laboratory media
    D. Are extracellular pathogens



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    Correct Answer: C






    71. Most humans become infected with legionella by:
    A. A water source
    B. By tick exposure
    C. By mosquito exposure
    D. By direct contact with another person who is infected



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    Correct Answer: A






    72. Legionella infection is more common in patients who:
    A. Are smokers with COPD
    B. Are diabetics
    C. Are premature infants
    D. Are patients on broad spectrum antibiotics



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    Correct Answer: A






    73. A 30-year-old patient comes to clinic complaining of a three-week history of cough. He started with a runny nose, fever and sneezing for a few days followed by a dramatic cough that keeps him up at night. He complains of episodes of coughing where he will have "fits" of coughing with 10-15 coughs during one exhalation to the point that he is afraid that he will never be able to take in a breath. These coughing episodes are so severe that his ribs are extremely sore. An organism you should consider would be:
    A. Staph aureus
    B. Tuberculosis
    C. Bordetella pertussis
    D. Haemophilus influenzae



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    Correct Answer: C






    74. An important characteristic of mycobacteria is that they are:
    A. Gram negative
    B. Rapid growing (doubling time 15 minutes)
    C. Acid fast
    D. Alpha hemolytic



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    Correct Answer: C






    75. You would expect the time course of a typical patient with reactivation tuberculosis before they reach a point requiring hospitalization to take:
    A. A few hours
    B. 4 to 5 days
    C. 1-2 weeks
    D. Several weeks



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    Correct Answer: D






    76. Symptoms of reactivation tuberculosis include:
    A. Weight loss
    B. Hypotension
    C. Nausea and vomiting
    D. Headache



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    Correct Answer: A






    77. A 30 year old patient with advanced HIV infection (AIDS) is admitted to the hospital with a high fever. Blood cultures are performed and you receive a report from the laboratory that they are growing a mycobacteria. The one that is most likely is:
    A. Mycobacterium leprae
    B. Mycobacterium avium
    C. Mycobacterium kansasii
    D. Mycobacterium marinum



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    Correct Answer: B






    78. An important characteristic of all fungal infections is that:
    A. They are usually transmitted from person to person
    B. They are usually simple and straightforward to treat
    C. They cause serious disease in debilitated, and/or immunocompromised patients
    D. They are usually mixed infections with a combination of fungi and bacteria in the same tissue site



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    Correct Answer: C






    79. Some fungi have two different morphological forms, yeast and molds. If they do, it is likely that:
    A. The yeast form appears in the environment, the mold form in tissue
    B. The mold form appears in the environment, the yeast form in tissue
    C. Both forms appear in tissue
    D. Neither form appears in tissue since these are nonpathogenic organisms



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    Correct Answer: B






    80. A 30 year old patient with advanced HIV infection comes into clinic complaining that food is sticking in the back of his throat and in his chest when he tries to swallow. You look in his mouth and see patches of whitish material on the surface that can easily be removed and leaves a red base. The organism most likely to cause this is:
    A. Histoplasma
    B. Candida albicans
    C. Group A strep
    D. Strongyloides



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    Correct Answer: B






    81. The infection most often associated with Cryptococcus neoformans is:
    A. Septic arthritis
    B. Sinusitis
    C. Pneumonia
    D. Meningitis



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    Correct Answer: D






    82. The usual initiating event when infection occurs with a fungus is for:
    A. The patient to ingest it from meat
    B. The patient to ingest it from water
    C. The patient to acquire it from another person
    D. The patient to inhale it



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    Correct Answer: D






    83. A 20 year old college student is part of an archeological team traveling to northeastern Arizona to help excavate Indian ruins. One month after returning she develops a flu-like illness with cough, myalgias, and low grade fever. A chest x-ray shows a small localized infiltrate in the right mid lung field. An organism to consider would be:
    A. Histoplasma
    B. Coccidioides
    C. Legionella
    D. Brucella



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    Correct Answer: B






    84. A 22 year old diabetic with poor control of blood glucoses comes into clinic with a 2 month history of nasal congestion and low grade fever. Over the past 3 days he has also had a painful right eye-it hurts to look from side to side. In addition he feels that his vision is impaired now in that eye. On exam his right eye appears red and swollen and seems to be pushed forward. His nasal mucosa on that side appears dark and almost necrotic. You should be worried about:
    A. A zygomycete infection
    B. Toxic shock syndrome
    C. Meningococcemia
    D. Trachoma



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    Correct Answer: A






    85. The most likely infection to occur following exposure to Sporothrix is:
    A. A urinary tract infection
    B. Pneumonia
    C. Meningitis
    D. An ulcerating skin lesion



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    Correct Answer: D






    86. Each of the following parasites pass through the human lung at some time during their life cycle but only one establishes a home where it divides and causes a chronic disease state. Which one lives in the lung as a definitive host?
    A. Strongyloides stercoralis
    B. Wuchereria bancrofti
    C. Ancylostoma duodenale
    D. Paragonimus westermani
    E. Ascaris lumbricoides



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    Correct Answer: D






    87. Each of the following is true regarding Pneumocystis carinii. Which statement is false?
    A. It lives as a commensal in most humans
    B. It is a common cause of community acquired pneumonia
    C. It is an AIDS defining illness in patients with HIV
    D. It caused pneumonia in malnourished children after World War II
    E. The most sensitive way of making the diagnosis is with a direct immunoflourescence stain on sputum or Bronchoalveolar lavage



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    Correct Answer: B






    88. A 44-year-old native Nigerian who has lived in the USA for 10 years returned to visit his family in Africa and now presents with a history of shaking chills, followed by high fever and then profuse sweating. He states that this is the most severe case of malaria he has ever had. His blood smear shows malaria organisms consistent with Plasmodium falciparum. Which of the following statements is false regarding P. falciparum?
    A. His symptoms are more severe this time because he has lost some of the immunity that comes with frequent recurrences of malaria
    B. Taking appropriate prophylactic medication has an 80-90% chance of preventing P. falciparum malaria
    C. P. falciparum causes organ damage in the brain, lungs, and kidneys because of adhesion of infected red cells to the endothelium of the capillaries which impairs the microcirculation to these organs
    D. P. falciparum gametocytes are ameboid shaped
    E. Plasmodium falciparum has the highest mortality rate of the four malaria species



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    Correct Answer: D






    89. This July a group of 30 volunteers went to Kenya to help build a school and all of them took prophylaxis to prevent malaria. They claim that they took the medication as prescribed 2 weeks before, during their stay, and for 4 weeks after returning home. In October, one person developed malaria and by April of this year, 9 of the 30 volunteers had been treated for malaria. Which of the following is the least likely explanation for this apparent failure of prevention?
    A. This is most likely P. vivax or ovale which have a latent stage in their life cycle that persists in the liver and can result in disease weeks to months after exposure
    B. Most of the medication used for prophylaxis of malaria acts only on the red blood cell stage of the infection
    C. This could be P. malariae which is known to result in a more chronic malaria state
    D. This could be P. falciparum that was not completely treated by the prophylaxis
    E. The nine who got malaria must not have taken the medication as prescribed since this should have prevented malaria



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    Correct Answer: E






    90. Each of the following statements (except one) is true regarding malaria. Which one is false?
    A. Once someone has malaria infection, they will have it for the rest of their life in spite of treatment
    B. All persons who contract P. vivax malaria have Duffy Antigen present on their red blood cells
    C. Persons with sickle cell trait or disease are more resistant to serious malaria
    D. Schuffner's dots in red cell cytoplasm are most consistent with P. vivax or ovale malaria
    E. One way to help diagnose P. malariae is to carefully record the pattern of symptoms since it is the only species to have a 72 hour interval of symptoms



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    Correct Answer: A






    91. A 42-year old patient from Ecuador is admitted with fever, right upper abdominal pain and is found to have a cystic mass of the liver. You suspect an amebic abscess and order stool exams that are reported as positive for E. histolytica and an ameba serology is positive at 1:256. Which statement is false regarding ameba?
    A. He should be treated with two medications. One to kill the active trophozoites and a second to kill the cysts.
    B. Transmission is by fecal-oral means
    C. Amebic liver abscess can usually be treated with medication and do not need to be drained
    D. Transmission to a new person is generally done by the more resistant cyst form of the life cycle
    E. Aspirate from liver cysts can be used to make the diagnosis because they are loaded with white blood cells and E. histolytica cysts



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    Correct Answer: E






    92. A 30-year old patient is evaluated for chronic diarrhea that has gone on for 4 months with a 20-pound weight loss. By history you find that he has had sex with men for 12 years. You are concerned about the possibility of HIV and his test is positive with a low CD4 count that makes you think of immunodeficiency. You order a test for Cryptosporidium in his stool. Which of the following statements is false regarding Cryptosporidium:
    A. Most people who have this organism are symptomatic
    B. Person to person transmission is common and it is seen frequently in outbreaks in daycare centers
    C. It is fairly resistant to chlorine treatment in municipal water treatment centers and is a recognized cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea
    D. It is frequently associated with systemic symptoms of fever, chills and bloody diarrhea
    E. It has been difficult to treat in immunocompromised patients and usually persists for the duration of the patient's life



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    Correct Answer: D






    93. You see a 20-year old female for complaints of vaginal itching, discharge, pain with intercourse and discomfort with urination. She has had 3 different sexual partners over the past 2 years. As part of your workup, you do a wet mount of vaginal secretions and see a flagellated organism about the size of a white blood cell with "twitching motility" that makes you think of Trichomonas vaginalis. Which statement is false regarding Trichomonas?
    A. Men are most likely asymptomatic but efficient transmitters of this organism
    B. The cyst form of the life cycle is the most common method of transmission
    C. Simultaneous treatment of the patient and her sexual contacts will decrease the chance of recurrences
    D. In severe cases the regional mucosa may be red with petechial lesions and the cervix has been described as a "strawberry cervix"
    E. Patients found to have Trichomonas should be evaluated for other venereal transmitted diseases



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    Correct Answer: B






    94. A 22-year old college student is seen because he has had severe chronic diarrhea and a stool for O&P is positive for Giardia lamblia. He has lost 50 pounds in weight and has been treated for Giardia on 6 occasions only to have it reoccur. You are concerned that he has an immunodeficiency and lab results demonstrate a very low IgA level. Which of the following statements would be false regarding Giardia?
    A. It is one of the causes of H2S or rotten egg gas
    B. It is often a self-limiting disease
    C. A weight loss of 50 pounds due to Giardia is very unusual
    D. You are not surprised when 5 of 11 dorm mates are found to have Giardia because it is spread from person to person easily
    E. It often results in iron deficiency anemia due to gastrointestinal blood loss



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    Correct Answer: E






    95. This year there have been 7 travelers to eastern Africa that have contracted Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. They have all presented in the early stage of the disease with a "chancre" of the skin associated with cellulitis (red hot swelling) around the chancre. Which of the following is false regarding Trypanosoma brucei?
    A. Progression of the disease is more rapid in rhodesiense than in gambiense
    B. Early diagnosis allows for a more effective, safer medication that can be used before the parasite reaches the brain
    C. Rhodesiense has multiple hosts while in gambiense, humans are the only host
    D. Epidemics of African sleeping sickness have occurred by person to person spread
    E. Both are transmitted by the Tsetse fly



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    Correct Answer: D






    96. Blood banks in Southern California and Texas have done studies to evaluate how often blood containing Trypansoma cruzi is found in their blood donor pool. They have found that the incidence varies between 1:8,000 to 1:40,000 donors. If you were making up a list of questions to ask blood donors, which of the following questions would be least helpful in screening to exclude this organism from persons that have grown up in an endemic area?
    A. Have you ever been bitten by a reduvid bug?
    B. Have you ever eaten pigs, dogs, or other animals that are reservoir hosts for Chaga's disease?
    C. Have you lived in an adobe hut with a thatched roof?
    D. Have you ever had swelling of your eye that lasted more than 3 days?
    E. Have you ever had a blood test positive for Chaga's disease?



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    Correct Answer: B






    97. This year a report from India indicates that a single dose of Amphotericin B can result in the cure of Leishmania donovani rather than prolonged treatment by fairly toxic medication. If confirmed this will be a major advance in the treatment of Kala-azar. Which of the following statements is false regarding systemic Leishmaniasis?
    A. It is spread by the bite of the sand fly
    B. Macrophages ingest the organism and move about the body facilitating its spread
    C. Diagnosis can often be made by identifying amastigotes in cells aspirated from the spleen or bone marrow
    D. Untreated patients frequently recover on their own
    E. Kala-azar should be considered as one of the possibilities in someone who has lived in an endemic area and has an enlarged spleen



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    Correct Answer: D






    98. You have just examined a patient from Brazil who has a chronic ulcer of his ear that has been present for 6 months. You are concerned that he has Leishmaniasis and want to differentiate L. mexicana from L. braziliensis. Which of the following statements about these 2 organisms is false?
    A. They are both transmitted by the sand fly
    B. Both appear as amastigotes in macrophages on biopsy
    C. Both can start as a cutaneous ulcer that eventually heals on its own
    D. Both heal with a residual scar
    E. Both will eventually cause lesions of the mucous membranes



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    Correct Answer: E






    99. Several years ago there was an outbreak of Trichinosis among a group of Vietnam immigrants in New York that had made their own pork sausage. About 30 people who ate the sausage all become ill. Which of the following statements is false about Trichinella spiralis?
    A. It can be spread by eggs passed in the stool
    B. It is a tissue nematode that induces a high eosinophil response
    C. It is a disease of meat eating animals
    D. It is usually self limiting
    E. Heavy infection causes symptoms of diarrhea and abdominal pain that progresses to fever, facial and periorbital edema and myalgias



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    Correct Answer: A






    100. You see a young child for evaluation of fever, abdominal pain, enlarged liver and eosinophilia. You suspect toxocariasis from Toxacara canis or cati. Which of the following statements is false about Toxocara?
    A. It can result in retinal lesions that can impair vision
    B. It is caused by the larvae of the "dog or cat ascaris" that wander through the body unable to find the lung to complete their life cycle
    C. It is associated with persons who eat dirt
    D. It can be spread by contact with human feces
    E. It is often found in young puppies or kittens



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    Correct Answer: D






    101. A 4th year medical student from the UofU traveled to Northern Ghana during an international rotation to Accra. He was fortunate enough to see a patient with Dracunculus medinensis in which they were extracting a worm from his leg onto a pencil. This parasite is being eradicated from the world. Which of the following is least likely to help rid the world of Dracunculus medinensis?
    A. Boiling surface water before drinking it
    B. Using a coffee filter or shirt to filter out copepods before drinking surface water
    C. Treating of sewage before it enters fresh surface water
    D. Preventing persons suspected of having Dracunculus from wading in the drinking water
    E. Treating ponds used for drinking water with insecticide



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    Correct Answer: C






    102. A 74-year old World War II Veteran who was a prisoner of war in the Philippines is admitted to the VAH with a Group A Streptococcal cellulitis resulting from massive swelling of both lower legs from elephantiasis. Which of the following is false regarding elephantiasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti?
    A. If these infections are not treated early they rapidly progress to massive swelling of the involved lymphatic drainage area
    B. It is transmitted to humans by the mosquito
    C. Humans are the definitive host
    D. The microfilaria in the blood stream of man can be transfused to another person without establishing a new infection
    E. The adult organisms live in the lymphatic channels of man and can result in scarring of the Lymphatic channels



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    Correct Answer: A






    103. An ophthalmologist from Cameroon, Africa describes the microfilaria seen in the eye of patients with Onchocerciasis. He states that he treats only after finding 30+ microfilaria because of the toxicity of Diethyl-Carbamazine that was used for treatment. Now with a less toxic agent, (Ivermectin) a major attempt is being made to eradicate Onchocerca volvulus. Which statement is false regarding Onchocerca volvulus?
    A. It is transmitted by the Simulian Black fly that reproduces in rapidly moving water
    B. Itching of the skin is a prominent feature of this disease
    C. The adults live in a nodule on the skin with the female producing large numbers of microfilaria that migrate under the skin
    D. Diagnosis can sometimes be made by finding the microfilaria in a skin snip or skin biopsy
    E. The microfilaria mate in the human skin and develop into the adult parasite



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    Correct Answer: E






    104. Itching around the rectum is commonly caused by the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Which of the following is false regarding pinworms?
    A. It has a simple rectum to mouth life cycle (do not scratch your bum and suck your thumb)
    B. Diagnosis is best made by a stool O&P exam
    C. It is highly contagious infecting a number of members of a family at the same time
    D. Spread can be prevented by good hygiene
    E. The egg is oval, flat on one side and contains a single larvae folded over like a safety pin



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    Correct Answer: B






    105. Trichuris trichiura or whipworm is a frequent parasite found in humans. Which of the following is false for Trichuris trichiura?
    A. Heavy infestations may result in diarrhea sometimes associated with blood
    B. Light infections may be asymptomatic
    C. The eggs have a barrel-like appearance with bipolar plugs
    D. After ingestion the eggs hatch into larvae that migrate through the lung before maturing in the duodenum
    E. The eggs passed in stool are unembryonated, so they require a time to mature in the soil before they become infectious



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    Correct Answer: D






    106. In the 1920's, the Rockefeller Foundation funded a physician to go throughout the Pacific Islands to decrease the incidence of hookworm. Each of the following but one would help decrease the incidence of this disease. Which one would not make any change in incidence of Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus?
    A. Wearing shoes
    B. Washing hands after using the bathroom
    C. Using latrines for defecation
    D. Treating those found to be infected
    E. Establishing sewage treatment facilities



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    Correct Answer: B






    107. An elderly Tongan male was diagnosed with multiple myeloma (a form of cancer) and has been treated with chemotherapy agents for two months. He was then admitted to the hospital with new-onset asthma symptoms that became worse when he was treated with steroids. Many small larvae were found in his sputum and he was found to have a hyper-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Which statement is false regarding Strongyloides?
    A. Strongyloides is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia just like hookworm
    B. The initial infection occurs when larvae penetrate the skin from the soil
    C. Auto infection occurs when the ova hatch and mature in the intestinal tract and then penetrate the intestine to establish a persistent infection
    D. Eosinophilia is present during the migrating phase of the life cycle
    E. Recurrent bacterial infections can develop when bacteria are carried by the larvae into sterile areas of the body



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    Correct Answer: A






    108. A physician calls from an outlying hospital to report that his patient has passed a large, white, round worm with pointed ends that is about 8 inches long. He is concerned this could be Echinococcus but the only parasite that matches this description is Ascaris lumbricoides. Which of the following is false regarding Ascaris lumbricoides?
    A. Most infected humans are asymptomatic
    B. Large numbers of larvae passing through the lung can cause asthma type symptoms
    C. Large numbers of adult worms in the gut can cause obstruction
    D. The fertilized unembryonated egg passed in the stool requires a period of time to embryonate before it becomes infectious
    E. Heavy infection has been associated with rectal prolapse



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    Correct Answer: E






    109. Humans are the definitive host for Diphyllobothrium latum or the fish tapeworm which competes for Vitamin B12 with its human host. Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in an anemia with production of very large red blood cells, called macrocytic anemia. All of the following would prevent the spread of this disease but one. Which one would not be a method of prevention?
    A. Avoid swimming in fresh waters that are endemic for Diphyllobothrium latum
    B. Cook freshwater fish well before eating
    C. Freeze fish that is going to be consumed raw which will kill the parasite
    D. Provide sewage treatment plants that treat raw sewage before dumping it into fresh water
    E. Avoid eating fresh water fish



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    Correct Answer: A






    110. Taenia saginata and Taenia solium are similar in many ways, but Taenia solium is more dangerous. Which of the following makes T. solium more dangerous?
    A. It has an armed scolex
    B. It has fewer uterine branches than T. saginata
    C. Man can be infected as an intermediate host by eating the eggs from T. solium
    D. The cyst or larvae form ingested from pork is more potent than the cyst from beef
    E. It produces more eggs than T. saginata



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    Correct Answer: C






    111. A 22-year old Tibetan female is found to have a large multiloculated cyst of the pelvis that is removed and found to be due to Echinococcus granulosus. This is most unusual since most cysts occur in the liver or lung. Which of the following is false regarding Echinococcus granulosus?
    A. The diagnosis in humans can be made by looking for the eggs in human stool
    B. Dogs are the definitive host
    C. Sheep are intermediate hosts
    D. Humans are incidental hosts
    E. Humans contract disease from eating the eggs excreted in dog feces



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    Correct Answer: A






    112. A student returns from a student teaching assignment in Zimbabwe. On the way home she swam in Lake Malawi. She is found to have schistosomiasis. Four of the following answers are good advice on how to prevent schistosomiasis. Which one is bad advice?
    A. In risk areas, don't swim in fresh water rivers or lakes
    B. Swimming in chlorinated pools is safe
    C. Swimming in ocean salt water is safe
    D. Toweling off vigorously after contact with potentially contaminated water decreases your risk
    E. Wading in water up to your knees is safe for brief periods of time



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    Correct Answer: E






    113. A Chinese male has had right upper quadrant pain for the past 10 years. Workup for gallbladder disease with an ultrasound shows small linear organisms. O&P exam reveals the ovoid, flask shaped egg of Clonorchis sinensis. Which of the following statements is false regarding Clonorchis sinensis?
    A. It is also called the oriental liver fluke
    B. Man is a definitive host
    C. This infection can best be treated with surgical removal of the gallbladder
    D. There are two intermediate hosts - the snail and the fish
    E. Long-term infection has been associated with cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile duct)



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    Correct Answer: C






    114. The major groups of arthropod-borne viruses include
    A. Togaviruses, Flaviviruses, and Bunyaviruses,
    B. Togaviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Reoviruses
    C. Reoviruses, Enteroviruses, Rhabdoviruses
    D. Retroviruses, Enteroviruses, Togaviruses



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    Correct Answer: A






    115. The major pathological features in Yellow Fever include
    A. Midzonal hepatic necrosis and Councilman bodies
    B. Midzonal hepatic necrosis and Negri bodies
    C. Glomerular and renal papillary necrosis
    D. Midzonal hepatic necrosis and diffuse encephalitis



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    Correct Answer: A






    116. The pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic shock syndrome is distinguished from that of uncomplicated dengue by
    A. Excitotoxic injury of neurons
    B. Development of dengue virus meningiits
    C. Immune enhancement of infection
    D. Neurotropic spread of virus



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    Correct Answer: C






    117. Rabies reaches the central nervous system by
    A. Hematogenous distribution
    B. Neurotropic spread
    C. Entry into brain within macrophages
    D. Both "A" and "B"



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    Correct Answer: B






    118. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by
    A. JC virus
    B. Pumuula virus
    C. Prions
    D. SV40 virus



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    Correct Answer: C






    119. Rabies virus produces infection of
    A. Astrocytes
    B. Oligodendrocytes
    C. Neurons
    D. Macrophages



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    Correct Answer: C






    120. The most frequent cause of viral meningitis in the United States is
    A. Enteroviruses
    B. Rhabdoviruses
    C. California/Lacrosse virus
    D. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus



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    Correct Answer: A






    121. Common symptoms of hepatitis include:
    A. Fever, nausea, diarrhea
    B. Malaise, anorexia, jaundice
    C. Nausea, vomiting, right upper quadrant abdominal pain
    D. Clear urine, dark colored stools, anorexia



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    Correct Answer: B






    122. Hepatitis A can be transmitted by:
    A. Changing diapers on an infected baby
    B. Having sex with someone who is infected
    C. Eating cooked meat
    D. Needle stick injuries from infected patients



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    Correct Answer: A






    123. A 30 year old patient comes in with symptoms of hepatitis. The following serological results are obtained: Hepatitis A IgM antibody negative, Hepatitis A IgG antibody positive, Hepatitis B surface antigen positive, Hepatitis B surface antibody negative, Hepatitis C antibody negative. This set of results suggests that the patient has acute:
    A. Hepatitis A
    B. Hepatitis B
    C. Hepatitis C
    D. Hepatitis A and B



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    Correct Answer: B






    124. A major characteristic of hepatitis C is:
    A. It is transmitted by eating raw oysters
    B. It is highly likely to cause chronic ongoing infection
    C. Most patients have severe symptoms when first infected
    D. It is a DNA virus



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    Correct Answer: B






    125. HIV is the same as:
    A. HTLV III
    B. HTLV II
    C. HTLV I
    D. None of the above



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    Correct Answer: A






    126. The likelihood of HIV being transmitted from a pregnant woman to her infant in the absence of antiretroviral therapy is about:
    A. 1 in 500
    B. 1 to 5 %
    C. 20 to 25%
    D. 50 to 75%



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    Correct Answer: C






    127. One of the characteristics of HIV infection is that:
    A. The virus multiplies slowly with a half-life of weeks matching the slow rate of disease progression
    B. There is rapid dissemination of virus within the first few weeks of infection to all tissues
    C. In early infection the virus is most actively multiplying within the bloodstream
    D. There is little if any immune response to HIV infection, and that is why this infection is so overwhelming



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    Correct Answer: B






    128. Serologic conversion to a positive test for HIV infection occurs:
    A. In 2-3 days
    B. In 3-4 weeks
    C. In 3-6 months
    D. May take up to 10 years



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    Correct Answer: B






    129. One of the key differences between amantidine/rimantidine and the newer neuraminidase inhibitor influenza virus drugs is:
    A. drug allergy
    B. antimetabolic effect on host cells due to lack of specificity for viral enzymes
    C. rate of development of drug resistance
    D. drug-drug interactions associated with competition for cytochrome P450 enzymes



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    Correct Answer: C






    130. Which of the following best characterizes antiviral chemotherapy in comparison to bacterial chemotherapy?
    A. Few drug targets, toxicity problematic
    B. Sensitivity tests of limited value
    C. Toxicity a minor problem, multiple enzymatic targets
    D. Many more drug options are available to treat viral infections



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    Correct Answer: A






    131. HIV reverse transcriptase, a critical target in modern antiretroviral chemotherapy, performs which critical function for the virus:
    A. Cleaves polyprotein precursor leading to functional assembly of viral core
    B. Cleaves sialic acid residue from glycoprotein permitting attachment and entry into cell
    C. Transcribes RNA into DNA
    D. Activates 2',5' oligoadenylate synthetase



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    Correct Answer: C






    132. Foscarnet interacts with which of the following viral enzymes:
    A. Pyrophosphate-binding site of the polymerase
    B. Protease
    C. Nucleoside reductase
    D. Reverse transcriptase



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    Correct Answer: A






    133. Enteroviruses are most closely related to which of the following viruses.
    A. Herpes simplex
    B. Hepatitis C
    C. Hepatitis A
    D. Rotavirus
    E. Rubella



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: C






    134. The following statements are clearly true about enteroviruses EXCEPT:
    A. There are many serotypes
    B. They can cause a variety of diseases which imitate bacterial infection
    C. They are an important cause of meningitis
    D. They are an important cause of diarrhea



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    135. All of the following are syndromes associated with enteroviruses EXCEPT:
    A. Conjuctivitis
    B. Coronary artery disease
    C. Myocarditis
    D. Pericarditis
    E. Pleuritis



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    136. Antiviral drugs currently on the market, including acyclovir and pencyclovir are active against enteroviruses.
    A. True
    B. False



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: B






    137. All of the following are true statements regarding viruses EXCEPT:
    A. They contain both RNA and DNA
    B. The nucleic acid may be single or double stranded
    C. They are obligate intracellular parasites
    D. They reproduce using host cell energy
    E. The infectious particle is called a virion



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: A






    138. A cytolytic virus would be expected to cause cytopathic effect in cell culture.
    A. True
    B. False



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: A






    139. Influenza virus hemagglutinins play a significant role in which of the following phases of viral replication?
    A. Uncoating
    B. Virion Assembly
    C. Release by budding
    D. Adsorption
    E. Production of mRNA



    Show answer

    Correct Answer: D






    140. Which of the following statements is true regarding naked virions?
    A. They release from infected cells by budding.
    B. They are almost exclusively RNA viruses.
    C. Their release from infected cells may cause cell lysis.
    D. All herpesviruses are naked v

  2. #2
    Anonymous is offline Unregistered Guest
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    bump

    bumping for study group

  3. #3
    ddpan80 is offline Newbie 510 points
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    thanksssssssssssss

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    xavier9 is offline Newbie 510 points
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    thanks a bunch buddy

  5. #5
    Trina Johnson is offline Newbie 510 points
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    Where can I find the res of the questions ?

  6. #6
    honzah is offline Member 515 points
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    You can find the remaining questions here:
    http://www.usmleforum.com/archives/2006/1/76773.php

    Does anyone know the book/online test bank where these questions were originally sourced from?

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