A 22-year-old woman named Sarah Michelle Gellar sees you for pain and burning on urination. She says she is a virgin and has never had sexual relations. The preg. Test at the office is HCG (-). She states that the symptoms started two days ago and have worsened since. She has a slight fever and has never had these symptoms before. She has hypothyroidism for which she takes thyroid hormone replacement. Otherwise she has no medical problems. Physical Examination is unremarkable including a normal pelvic examination. A KOH and normal saline "wet prep" is performed on her vaginal discharge and is negative. Urinalysis reveals numerous white blood cells. She has never had a kidney stone. Which of the following is the most likely pathogen?
9-Group B Strep
a) ans is 5. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTI, accounting for 80-90% of cases. It originates from fecal flora that colonize the periurethral area (ascending infection). Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Proteus species cause most of the remaining cases. Gram-positive organisms, particularly Enterococcus faecalis and group B Streptococcus (GBS), are also clinically important pathogens. Infection with Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an aggressive, community-acquired organism, can present with upper urinary tract disease, and the infection is more likely to be persistent or recurrent. Group B Strep or GBS deserves special mention. GBS colonization has important implications during pregnancy. Intrapartum transmission leading to neonatal GBS infection can cause pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death. Current guidelines recommend universal vaginal and rectal screening of all pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation rather than treating on the basis of risk factors. Urea-splitting bacteria, including Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, alkalinize the urine and may be associated with struvite stones. Chlamydial infections are associated with sterile pyuria and account for more than 30% of nonbacterial UTIs.