step 1 micro
1-Legionella infection can be diagnosed using the following
laboratory tests:Specific detection with fluorescein-labeled
2-In the diagnosis of Whooping Cough, Bordetella pertussis is most
likely isolated from:a nasopharyngeal swab
3-The pathological hallmark of Legionnaire's disease is:an intra-
alveolar exudate of leukocytes and macrophages
4-Why has there been a re-emergence of whooping cough in this, and
other countries?Some children are not being vaccinated.
5-Inhalation of infected amoebae and ciliated protozoa has led to
outbreaks of:Legionnaire's disease.
6-From the organisms listed below, which one is the MOST frequent
colonizer of endoscopes, respirators and other hospital equipment?
1-The following microorganism is Gram-variable (resists
2-A Gram stain prepared from an inoculum of S. aureus is
overdecolorized. After the completion of the Gram stain procedure,
the resulting smear will show:red cocci in clusters
3-The Beta-lactamase test is not needed for:Streptococcus pyogenes
4-The most common source of errors during the Gram stain
procedure:Overdecolorizing with alcohol
5-The typical incubation time needed for colonies of most aerobic and
facultative bacteria to appear on agar plates is:24 hours.
6-The detection of the ك-lactamase enzyme is primarily valuable in
infections caused by:Hemophilus influenzae
7-A Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test, and a beta-lactamase detection
test are indicated if an organism isolated from an infected wound
turns out to be:Staphylococcus aureus.
8-A positive chromogenic Cefinase test indicates: production of beta-
resistance to Penicillin G.
resistance to Ampicillin.
resistance to Carbenicillin
1-The CAMP test is used for the identification of:Streptococcus
2-Which of the following organisms, when isolated in the blood,
requires the synergistic activity of penicillin plus an
aminoglycoside for appropriate therapy?Enterococcus faecalis
3-Which of the following organisms must be treated with combination
therapy (most commonly a cell-wall active antibiotic and an
aminoglycoside) when isolated in multiple blood
1-Which of the following factors is NOT important for establishment
of meningococcal disease due to Neisseria meningitidis?the production
of siderophores for iron scavenging.
2-Diagnosis of gonorrhea in women relies on:culture of vaginal
exudate on Thayer-Martin media.
3-For Neisseria, generation of variant pilin forms naturally occurs
4-The human host has difficulty producing humoral antibodies that are
effective against certain antigenic determinants of Neisseria. This
is due to the organism's property of:antigenic variation
5-The serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis most often associated with
6-Host immunity to Neisseria meningitidis infection is:mediated
primarily by bacteriocidal antibodies
7-For Neisseria, generation of variant pilin forms occurs naturally
8-The method of choice for identification of Neisseria isolated from
mucosal surfaces other than the conjunctiva and the male urethra
9-The same beta-lactamase found in N. gonorrhoeae (gonococci) has
also been found in:E. coli
1-Among the Sunday night patients at the Smithville emergency room
were ten young adults suffering from severe diarrhea. All of these
individuals would normally characterize themselves as being in good
health. All reported eating at a local Dairy fair during the weekend.
Of the following bacterial species the least likely to be responsible
2-Which of the following tests would not differentiate Vibrio
cholerae non-O1 from Vibrio parahaemolyticus:oxidase activity
3-What is the most common outcome of infection with Helicobacter
pylori?No clinical manifestations
4-Healthy adult travelers visiting Peru are cautioned against eating
uncooked vegetables and unpeeled fruits, and against drinking
unbottled water. However, they are already resistant to cholera
because of:a gastric barrier, due to stomach acids.
5-The microbiologist is aware that the gastroenteritis outbreak is
associated with the consumption of raw seafood at a local restaurant.
She considers it may be due to a number of vibrios EXCEPT:V.
6-Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis is associated with consumption
of contaminated water or foods which include the following :
7-Which of the following is true about Helicobacter pylori :Damage to
the patient's gastric mucosa has been primarily caused by the
patient's own immune response.
8-Which of the following is not true about the bacterium classified
as Vibrio cholerae O antigen group 1 (V. cholerae O1)?It invades the
9-Only recently have Campylobacter and Helicobacter been identified
as the causative agents for certain infections. This is because the
clinical laboratories now routinely test for organisms
1-14 year old girl gradually became somnolent ,then coma ensued.she
was dehydrated,with rapid respiration and low bicarbonate level with
significant anion gap......diabetic ketoacidosis.
2-35 year old female with history of rheumatoid arthritis suspected
to have reactive systemic amyloidodsis.what is the most probably
affected organ and preferred site for biopsy?the kidney.the sites are
rectal mucosa,gingiva or abdominal pad of fat.
3-32 year old athelete presented with jaundice.no previous liver
disease.investigation showed elevated alkalive phsophatase,no viral
infection and no stones.what is ur presumptive diagnsis and possible
cause?cholestatic jaundice due to methyl testosterone administration.
4-12 year old girl lives in Brazil presented with congestiveheart
failure.examination revealed conjunctival edema,exophthalmos,and
periauricular lymph nodes.what is ur presumptive diagnosis ?chagas
5-6- month infant died with congestive heart failure.no anomalies
detected at birth,no serious infections occured.what is the most
probable genetic disease?pompe disease due to alpha 1,4 glucosidase
6-55 year old man,heavy smoker presented with cough,scanty
nonpurulent sputum,influenza-like symptoms and diarrhea.sputum
culture reavealed a lot of neutrophils,but no organisms.what is the
7-the mother noticed that the diaper of her baby stained pink.what is
the possible organism and mechanism?UTI caused by serratia which is
8-35 year old woman had an attack of billiary colic.which analgesic
is contraindicated and why?morhine increase intrabilliary pressure
which worsens the pain.
9-the doctor instructs his tuberculous patient to read fine newspaper
print every day as a self exam.what is the drug the patients is
receiving?ethambutol may cause optic neuritis.
10-a pregnant woman presented with symptoms diagnosed as malaria.what
is the appropriate treatment?chloroquine..premaquine is
THE MOST COMMON
1-AMI in children:kawasaki
2-aneyrysm in circle of willis:ACA=anterior communicating artery
3-tumor of esophagus:leimyoma
4-tumor of placenta:cavernous hemangioma
5-tumor of spleen:cavernous hemangioma
6-carpal bone dislocation:lunate
7-carpal bone fracture:scaphoid
8-congenital GI anomaly:meckle's
9-death in alzheimer:pneumonia
11-hypertension in young woman:OCPs
12-single gene disorder:thalassemia
13-heart problem with AIDS:Pericarditis
14-location of GI TB:ileocecal valve
15-site of breast cacer:upper lateral quadrant =60%
16-supratentorial tumor in children:craniopharyngioma
17-cause of hypopituitarism in children:craniopharyngioma
18-site injured in rejected liver:bile ducts
19-brain tumor in age less than 2:choroid plexus papilloma
20-meningitis in renal transplants:listeria
these words gathered from different readings including question
books.picky words were avoided as possible.
2-subarachnoid hemorrhage:berry aneurysm.
4-spongiosis(brain):kuru and creutzfeldt.
7-hookworm:iron deffieciency anemia.
8-fish tape worm:megaloblastic anemia.
9-black liver:Dubin-Johnson syndrome.
10-dissecting aneurysm:hypertension,medial necrosis,marfan syndrome.
13-anti-nRNP:mixed connective tissue disease.
14-acanthosis nigricans:viceral malignancy.
15-acute leukemia:alkylating agents,benzene.
18-bitter almond scented breath:cyanide poisoning.
19-bacilliary angiomatosis:Bartonella henselae.
20-bite cells:G6PD defieciency
21-ballerina skirt apperance :infectious mononucleosis.
22-angular atrophy:disuse atrophy.
23-cannon ball secondary deposits:renal cell carcinoma.
28-cancer suppressor genes:wt-1,p53,NF-1,APC,DCC.
29-cherry red skin:carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanide poisoning.
32-coproporphyrin increased in urine:lead poisoning.
33-calcium oxalate crystals in kidney:ethylene glycol poisoning.
35-central hepatic necrosis:chronic passive congestion.
36-bull's eye lesion:LYME disease.
37-bull's necl lymphadenopathy involving cervical L.N:diphtheria.
38-christmas tree pattern skin lesion:pityriasis rosea.
39-claw hand:scleroderma,lower trunk injury(c8,T1),cervical rib.
42-dense core neurosecretory granules:carcinoid.
44-changing cardiac murmers:atrial myxoma.
45-cells stained metachromatically:mast cells.
46-cells involved in type 1 and 4 reactions:basophils.
48-foot and wrist drop:lead posoning.
49-garlic scented breath:acute arsenic poisoning.
50-fried egg appearance:oligodendroglioma,multiple myeloma.
51-Herald patch:pityriasis rosea.
53-Dutcher bodies:waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.
54-currant jelly stool:intussuception.
55-Downey cells:infectious mononucleosis.
56-echinocytes:artefact or uremia.
57-electron dense humps:PSGN.
59-criss-cross fibrillary pattern:renal amyloidosis.
63-HER-2/neu oncogene:breast cancer.
64-fat embolus:fracture..pulmonary stress..petichia..neurologic
65-gas embolus:penetrating chest injury,criminal abortion,caisson's
66-hairy leukoplakia:EBV-associated in AIDS.
67-gray hepatization:pneumonia 4-5 days(untreated)
68-farmer's lung:hypersensitivity to actinomycetes in mold hay.
69-focal hepatic necrosis:typhoid fever.
72-adenocarcinoma of the kidney:PCT origin
73-HSV encephalitis:temporal and frontal lobes.
74-gum hyperplasia:phenytoin,pregnancy,scurvy,acute monocytic
75-colorectal cancer:left side obstructs,right side bleeds.
76-cigar shaped budding yeast:sporothrix schenkii
77-H-shaped vertebrae:sickle cell anemia.
78-hypocalcemic tumor:medullary thyroid cancer.
80-double barrel aorta on x ray:dissection.
81-flask shaped ulcer:entameba histolytuca.
83-Grave's disease:type 2 hypersensitivity(IgG)
84-Hashimoto's:type 4 hypersensitivity
hutchinson teeth:congenital syphilis
85-low fixed specific gravity:Chronic renal failure
86-HPV 6,11:Chondyloma acuminatum.
87-HPV 16,18:cacer cervix,vulva.
89-liver cancer:aflatoxin B1,alcohol,polyvinylchloride.
92-loss of eye brows:myxedema,2ry syphilis,lepromatous leprosy.
93-lacunar cells:Hodgkin disease,nodular sclerosis type.
94-leukocytosis:colony stimulating factor.
98-HLA-BW47:21 hydroxylase defieciency.
102-calcitonin:meduallary thyroid cancer.
105-placental alkaline phosphatase(PLAP):seminoma.
107-lead pipe sign on x ray:UC
108-Lemon yellow skin colour:pernicious anemia.
109-olivein abdomen:congenital pyloric stenosis
110-pill rolling tremor:parkinson
113-shield chest:wide spaced nipples inTurner's
114-malabsorption:pernicious anemia,crohn's,blind loop syndrome,fish
115-Mee's lines:chronic arsenic poisoning.
116-mulberry molars:congenital syphilis
118-onion skin apprance:Ewing's sarcoma
119-multinucleated giant cells:neonatal hepatitis,Hodgkin's
122-pappenheimer bodies:after splenectomy.
123-PAS positive macrophages:whiple's disease.
124-peri-neural spread:adenocystic parotid cancer,pancreatic cancer.
126-paradoxical embolus:ASD,pataent foramen ovale
127-polygonal clear cells:RCC
128-morulae in cytoplasm:ehrlichiosis.
130-red hepatization:pneumonia 1-3 days
131-midzonal hepatic necrosis:yellow fever.
132-slit-like vascular spaces:kaposi sarcoma
133-N-formyl methionine:chemotactic factor
134-myofiber disarray:hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
135-Leser-Trelat sign:seborrhic keratosis,acanthosis nigricans or
amyloidosis in patients with GIT malignancy
136-peripheral hepatic necrosis:eclampsia,phosphrus poisoning.
138-melanosis coli:laxatives abuse
141-Night pain relieved by aspirin:osteoid osteoma
142oligonal band:multiple sclerosis.
143-negative NBT test=nitroblue tetrazolium-yellow color:chronic
144-pseudomyxoma peritonii:mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary,mucocele
147-palisade arrangement nuclei:BCC
148-RCC:early blood spread
149-rb gene inactivation:retionoblastoma
150-saddle embolus:pulmonary artery bifurcation
151-red currant jelly sputum:bronchogenic carcinoma,klebsiell a
152-sabre tibia:congenital syphilis
153-saddle nose:congenital syphilis.lepromatous leprosy
154-Rokitansky Aschoff sinuses:chronic cglecystitis
156-Smoky brown urine:nephritic syndrome
157-pulmonary scars:irregular emphysema,adenocarcinoma.
159-perifollicular hemorrage:vit C defficeincy
160-snow storm appearance on pelvix x ray:hydatiform mole
162-thumb print sign on barium enema:ischemic bowel
163-wrist drop:radial nerve damage;fall onshoulder,birth injury
167-wood workers:Hodgkn's disease
168-Ashkenazi jews:TAY-saches,Gaucher's,factor 13
170-ACID FAST intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidney:lead
173-bilateral breast cancer:lobular carcinoma
175-central nuclei in muscles:dystrophy
176-crushed ping pong ball or flying saucers:PCP
177-CYSTATHININE synthase defficiency:homocystinuria
178-dew drop on rose petals:chickenpox
179-diaphragmatic pleural plaques:asbestosis
180-gray discolouration of skin:argyria=silver poisoning
181-aseptic necrosis:the bends,sickle cell anemia
182-bat wing appearance on x ray:pulmonary edema
183-black eschars:=malignat pustules:cutaneous anthrax
184-BRCA 1:70% RISK of medullary breast cancer
185-thiamine defieciency:wenicke-korsakoff syndrome
186-split basement membrane:Alport's syndrome
190-spindle shaped cells:spitz nevus
191-target fibres:denervation atrophy
193-tartarate resistant acid phosphatase:hairy cell leukemia
194-t(15:17):acute promyelocytic leukemia
195-silo-filler's lung:nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn.
199-thymidine dimers:xeroderma pigmentosa
200-TSI MORE THAN TGI:GRAVE'S
201-TGI MORE THAN TSI:HASHIMOTO'S
202-WINGED scapula;long thoracicnerve damage(c5,6,7),common with
203-target lesion=iris lesion:erythema multiform
205-wacky,wet ,wobbly:normal pressure hydrocephalus
206-type 1 DM:type 4 hypersensitivity
207-type 2 DM:type 2 hypersensitivity
208-opsonins:fc portion of igG,c3b,collectins.
209-hyalinized affrent arteriole:hypertension
210:hyaloinized affternt and efferent arterioles:DM
211-vit b6 deffiency:alcoholism,anemia(b6 responsive),anti-TB
212:wilm's tumor:metanephrogenic blastema origin
214-venous stasis:immobilization,CHF,polycythemia,sickle cell
anemia,viceral malignacy ,OCP
215-zebra bodies:NIEMAN PICK DISEASE
216-apple core lesion:left sided colon cancer
217-proximal myopathy:Duchenne,polymyositis,dermatomyosistis,Ea ton-
218-rickets:craniotabes,HARRISON GROOVE,PIGEON CHEST
220-anti-calcium channel antibodies:EATON-LAMBERT SYNDROME.
Occurs as a result of anti-leprosy treatment
type 1 reactions:
1-occurs with borderline types(BT,BB,BL)
2-neuritis,skin swelling and edema.
4-treat with prednisone or clofazimine, but dont stop treatment
type 2 reactions:=erythema nodusum leprosum.
1-occurs with BL AND LL.
2-painful nodualr rash and fever.
3-also neuritis,orchitis,arthritis and lymphadenopathy.
4-immune complex mediated.
5-treat with prednisone and clofazimine,but drug of choice is