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Pediatrics Mnemonics
Pediatrics Mnemonics
PEDIATRICS
MNEMONICS

Measles: complications "MEASLES COMP" (complications):
Myocarditis
Encephalitis
Appendicitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Laryngitis
Early death
Sh!ts (diarrhoea)
Corneal ulcer
Otis media
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Pneumonia and related (bronchiolitis-bronchitis-croup)


Sturge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features Sturge-Weber:
1. Seizures
2. PortWine stain


Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism":
Galactosaemia
Cystic fibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hypothyroidism
Phenylketonuria
Biotidinase deficiency
Maple syrup urine disease


Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
Stridor
Subglottic swelling
Seal-bark cough


Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:
Absent
Thymus


Cerebral palsy (CP): most likely cause CP: Cerebral Palsy
Child Premature
The premature brain is more prone to all the possible insults.


Vacterl syndrome: components VACTERL:
Vertebral anomalies
Anorectal malformation
Cardiac anomaly
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
Exomphalos (aka omphalocele)
Renal anomalies
Limb anomalies
Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTHRIE:
Galactosaemia
Urine [maple syrup urine disease]
THyRoid [hypothyroidism]
Inborn Errors of metabolism [eg: PKU]


Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla of vater.
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it.


Bilirubin: phototherapy BiLirUbin absorbs light maximally in the
BLUe range.

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Williams syndrome: features WILLIAMS:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)
Long philtrum
Large mouth
Increased Ca++
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Mental retardation
Swelling around eyes (periorbital puffiness)


Russell Silver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Bossing (frontal)
Clinodactyly/ Cafe au lait spots
Dwarf (short stature)
Excretion (GU malformation)
Face (triangular face, micrognathia)


Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain, Papa Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years


Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types Use your five fingers:
1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri)
4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot (4=Tetra)
5 fingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words)


Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Truncus arteriosus
Transposition of the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetrology of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return


Head circumference with age Remember 3, 9, and multiples of 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm


Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): components

 "Remember to decrease the RATE of IV fluids in these patients":
Renal failure
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Thrombocytopenia
Encephalopathy (TTP)


Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock the "CRADLE":
Cystic fibrosis
Rings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ Respiratory infections
Aspiration (swallowing dysfunction, TE fistula, gastroesphageal reflux)
Dyskinetic cilia
Lung, airway, and vascular malformations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord dysfunction)
Edema (heart failure)


Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
Rectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens
Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)

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Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF PANCREAS:
Cough (increase in intensity and frequent spells)
Fever (usually low grade, unless severe bronchopneumonia is present)
Pulmonary function deterioration
Appetite decrease
Nutrition, weight loss
CBC (leukocytosis with left shift)
Radiograph (increase overaeration, peribronchial thickening, mucus plugging)
Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas, tachypnea, retractions)
Activity (decreased, impaired exercise intolerance, increased absenteeism)
Sputum (becomes darker, thicker, and more abundant, forming plugs)


Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric stenosis is 3 P's:
Palpable mass
Paristalsis visible
Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks after birth)


Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types 5 T's:
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the great arteries
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary aTresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage


Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH:
Infant:
Allergic condition reduced
Best food for infant
Close relationship with mother
Development of IQ, jaws, mouth
Mother:
Econmical
Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape
Guards against cancer: breast, ovary, uterus
Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced


Perez reflex Eliciting the PErEz reflex will make the baby PEE.


WAGR syndrome: components WAGR:
Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Gential abnormalities
Mental retardation


Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHIJK:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Bladder (cystitis)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Exercise induced
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Glomerulonephritis
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
Infection (UTI)
In Jury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)


Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)


Rubella: congenital signs "Rubber Ducky, I'm so blue!" (like the "Rubber Ducky" song):
Rubber: Rubella
Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus, VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis.
I'm: Eyes (cataracts, retinopathy, micropthalmia, glaucoma).
Blue: "Blueberry Muffin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin +purpura)
Also, deafness, growth retardation, and some more.


Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-single words
2 years:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
3 years:
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-rides tricycle
4 years:
-draws square
-counts 4 objects

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Gastroschisis: usual location GasTRoscHIsis usually occurs on the
RIGHT side of the umbilicus.
(Unscramble the letters).


Milk protein: women vs. cows Woman: Whey (mostly)
Cow: Casein (mostly)


Short stature: differential ABCDEFG:
Alone (neglected infant)
Bone dysplasias (rickets, scoliosis, mucopolysaccharidoses)
Chromosomal (Turner's, Down's)
Delayed growth
Endocrine (low growth hormone, Cushing's, hypothyroid)
Familial
GI malabsorption (celiac, Crohn's)