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Emergency Medicine Mnemonics
Emergency Medicine Mnemonics
EMERGENCY
MEDICINE
MNEMONICS

Emergency Medicine

Coma: conditions to exclude as cause MIDAS:
Meningitis
Intoxication
Diabetes
Air (respiratory failure)
Subdural/ Subarachnoid hemorrhage


Resuscitation: basic steps ABCDE:
Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Drugs
Environment


Malignant hyperthermia treatment

"Some Hot Dude Better Give Iced Fluids Fast!"

(Hot dude = hypothermia):
Stop triggering agents
Hyperventilate/ Hundred percent oxygen
Dantrolene (2.5mg/kg)
Bicarbonate
Glucose and insulin
IV Fluids and cooling blanket
Fluid output monitoring/ Furosemide/ Fast heart [tachycardia]

 

Vfib/Vtach drugs used according to ACLS "Every Little Boy Must Pray":
Epinephrine
Lidocaine
Bretylium
Magsulfate
Procainamide

 

Coma causes checklist AEIOU TIPS:
Acidosis/ Alcohol
Epilepsy
Infection
Overdosed
Uremia
Trauma to head
Insulin: too little or or too much
Pyschosis episode
Stroke occurred

 

Shock: types RN CHAMPS:
Respiratory
Neurogenic
Cardiogenic
Hemorrhagic
Anaphylactic
Metabolic
Psychogenic
Septic
∑ Alternatively: "MR. C.H. SNAP", or "NH CRAMPS".

 

Shock: signs and symptoms TV SPARC CUBE:
Thirst
Vomiting
Sweating
Pulse weak
Anxious
Respirations shallow/rapid
Cool
Cyanotic
Unconscious
BP low
Eyes blank

 

Fall: potential causes CLADE SPADE:
Cardiovascular/ Cerebrovascular
Locomotor (skeletal, muscular, neurological)
Ageing (increased body sway, decreased reaction time)
Drugs (esp. antihypertensives, antipsychotics)
Environmental
Sensory deficits (eg. visual problems)
Psychological/ Psychiatric (depression)
Acute illness
Dementia
Epilepsy

 

Diabetic ketoacidosis management F*ĘKING:
Fluids (crytalloids)
Urea (check it)
Creatinine (check it)/ Catheterize
K+ (potassium)
Insulin (5u/hour. Note: sliding scale no longer recommended in the UK)
Nasogastic tube (if patient comatose)
Glucose (once serum levels drop to 12)

 

Asthma: management of acute severe "O S#!T":
Oxygen (high dose: >60%)
Salbutamol (5mg via oxygen-driven nebuliser)
Hydrocortisone (or prednisolone)
Ipratropium bromide (if life threatening)
Theophylline (or preferably aminophylline-if life threatening)

V-fib/pulseless v-tach (new ACLS as of 2001)

"EVAL My Pumper":

Epinephrine Vasopressin Amiodarone (class IIb--better for heart failure) Lidocaine (indeterminate - better for young, healthy or persistent) MgSO4 (IIb for hypomagnesemic state or torsades) Procainamide (IIb for intermittent/recurrent VF/VT)

 

Trauma: motor vehicle accident considerations

I AM SCARED:

Impact (head-on, rear-end, t-bone, rollover, rotational etc.) Auto vs. pedestrian, bike, motorcycle (start @ speed >10mph) Medical history (cardiac, coagulolation, liver, immuno, obese, prego) Speed (>50 mph?) Compartment intrusion (>12 inches?) Age (<5 or >55 y.o.?) Restraints (lap & shoulder, either, airbag, infant or child seat?) Ejection/ Extrication (eject=25x greater death, extr>20min) Death (at scene, same vehicle, other)

 

Decompression sickness

Boyle's law: volume of gas is inversely proportionate to its pressure. ∑ Therefore, BOYLE:

Breathe (as you ascend) Or Your Lung Explodes ∑ Breathe as you ascend after scuba diving, since the pressure decreases on surfacing, so the gas volume in lungs increases.

 

Pain history checklist

OLDER SAAB:

Onset Location Description (what does it feel like) Exacerbating factors Radiation Severity Associated symptoms Alleviating factors Before (ever experience this before)

 

Asystole: treatment

"Have some asystole "TEA":

Transcutaneous pacing Epi Atropine

 

Endotrachial tube deliverable drugs

O NAVEL:

Oxygen Naloxone Atropine Ventolin (albuterol) Epinephrine Lidocaine ∑ If you can't get IV access established, and have necessity to administer resuscitative meds, remember you have the airway and can give the above drugs. ∑ Drug delivery is enhanced if diluted with 10cc NS and rapid introduced for aeresolization. ∑ Alternatively, bare bone version is ALE, as above. 

 

RLQ pain: differential

APPENDICITIS:

Appendicitis/ Abscess PID/ Period Pancreatitis Ectopic/ Endometriosis Neoplasia Diverticulitis Intussusception Crohns Disease/ Cyst (ovarian) IBD Torsion (ovary) Irritable Bowel Syndrome Stones

 

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes

BATS:

Berry aneurysm Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat) Stroke

 

Syncope causes, by system

HEAD HEART VESSELS:

∑ CNS causes include HEAD:

Hypoxia/ Hypoglycemia Epilepsy Anxiety Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA)

∑ Cardiac causes are HEART: Heart attack Embolism (PE) Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma) Rhythm disturbance, ventricular Tachycardia

∑ Vascular causes are VESSELS: Vasovagal Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia) Situational Subclavian steal ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia) Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's, diabetic vascular neuropathy) Sensitive carotid sinus

 

Coma and signicantly reduced conscious state causes:

Causes COMA:

CO2 and CO excess Overdose: TCAs, Benzos, EtOH, insulin, paracetamol, etc. Metabolic: BSL, Na+, K+, Mg2+, urea, ammonia, etc. Apoplexy: stroke, SAH, extradural, subdural, Ca, meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral abscess, etc.