Sponsored Links
Cardiology Mnemonics

CARDIOLOGY
MNEMONICS

Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD:
Syncope
Angina
Dyspnoea

MI: basic management BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitor
Anticoagulate
Reduce clot size

ECG: left vs. right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW":
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.

Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND:
Collagen vascular disease
Aortic aneurysm
Radiation
Drugs (such as hydralazine)
Infections
Acute renal failure
Cardiac infarction
Rheumatic fever
Injury
Neoplasms
Dressler's syndrome

Murmurs: systolic types SAPS:
Systolic
Aortic
Pulmonic
Stenosis
Systolic murmurs include aortic and pulmonary stenosis.
Similarly, it's common sense that if it is aortic and pulmonary stenosis it could also be mitral and tricusp regurgitation].

MI: signs and symptoms PULSE:
Persistent chest pains
Upset stomach
Lightheadedness
Shortness of breath
Excessive sweating

Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock "Heart SAVER":
Symphatoadrenal system
Atrial natriuretic factor
Vasopressin
Endogenous digitalis-like factor
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
In all 5, system is activated/factor is released

Murmurs: right vs. left loudness "RILE":
Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.
Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.
If get confused about which is which, remember LIRE=liar which will be inherently false.

ST elevation causes in ECG, ELEVATION:
Electrolytes
LBBB
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Aneurysm
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm

Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D's:
Distant heart sounds
Distended jugular veins
Decreased arterial pressure

MI: therapeutic treatment ROAMBAL:
Reassure
Oxygen
Aspirin
Morphine (diamorphine)
Beta blocker
Arthroplasty
Lignocaine

CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE:
Forgot medication
Arrhythmia/ Anaemia
Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection
Lifestyle: taken too much salt
Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
Renal failure
Embolism: pulmonary

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic.
PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic.

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic Systolic murmurs: MR AS: "MR. ASner".
Diastolic murmurs: MS AR: "MS. ARden".
The famous people with those surnames are Mr. Ed Asner and Ms. Jane Arden.

Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.

Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS":
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.

Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes HOLT: Grab Harold Holt around the neck and throw him in the ocean:
Heart failure
Obstruction of venea cava
Lymphatic enlargement - supraclavicular
Intra-Thoracic pressure increase

Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Shock
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine

Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S's:
Soft
Systolic
Short
Sounds (S1 & S2) normal
Symptomless
Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)
Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)
Sternal depression

Murmur attributes "IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves):
Intensity
Location
Pitch
Quality
Radiation
Shape
Timing

Murmurs: locations and descriptions "MRS A$$":
MRS: Mitral Regurgitation--Systolic
A$$: Aortic Stenosis--Systolic
The other two murmurs, Mitral stenosis and Aortic regurgitation, are obviously diastolic.

Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers "Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium"
Cardioselective betablockers are:
Betaxolol
Acebutelol
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metoprolol

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable HILT:
Heaving
Impalpable
Laterally displaced
Thrusting/ Tapping
If it is impalpable, causes are COPD:
COPD
Obesity
Pleural, Pericardial effusion
Dextrocardia

MI: treatment of acute MI COAG:
Cyclomorph
Oxygen
Aspirin
Glycerol trinitrate

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD:
Symmetry of leg musculature
Integrity of skin
Color of toenails
Varicose veins
Distribution of hair

Heart murmurs "hARD ASS MRS. MSD":
hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic
ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic
MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic
MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic

Mitral regurgitation When you hear holosystolic murmurs, think "MR-THEM ARE holosystolic murmurs".

Sino-atrial node: innervation Sympathetic acts on Sodium channels (SS).
Parasympathetic acts on Potassium channels (PS).

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE:
Adenosine
Beta-blocker
Calcium channel antagonist
Digoxin
Excitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB:
Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiltene/ Magnesium
Beta-blocker

Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED:
Pulmonary embolus
Acidosis
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia
Myocardial infarction
Electrolyte derangements
Drugs

Sinus bradycardia: aetiology "SINUS BRADICARDIA" (sinus bradycardia):
Sleep
Infections (myocarditis)
Neap thyroid (hypothyroid)
Unconsciousness (vasovagal syncope)
Subnormal temperatures (hypothermia)
Biliary obstruction
Raised CO2 (hypercapnia)
Acidosis
Deficient blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Imbalance of electrolytes
Cushing's reflex (raised ICP)
Aging
Rx (drugs, such as high-dose atropine)
Deep anaesthesia
Ischemic heart disease
Athletes

Rheumatic fever: Jones criteria Major criteria: CANCER:
Carditis
Arthritis
Nodules
Chorea
Erythema
Rheumatic anamnesis
Minor criteria: CAFE PAL:
CRP increased
Arthralgia
Fever
Elevated ESR
Prolonged PR interval
Anamnesis of rheumatism
Leucocytosis
 
JVP: wave form ASK ME:
Atrial contraction
Systole (ventricular contraction)
Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling
Maximal atrial filling
Emptying of atrium
See diagram.
 
Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension

ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Ischemia
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
RBBB, LBBB
Treatments [digoxin]

Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria JONES:
Joints (migrating polyarthritis)
Obvious, the heart (carditis, pancarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis or valvulits)
Nodes (subcutaneous nodules)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham's chorea

Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
Stool Softeners

Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
Sick sinus syndrome

Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes "Do Block AV":
Digoxin
B-blockers
Adenosine
Verapamil

Murmurs: systolic MR PV TRAPS:
Mitral
Regurgitation and
Prolaspe
VSD
Tricupsid
Regurgitation
Aortic and
Pulmonary
Stenosis

Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES:
Dextrocardia
Obesity
Pericarditis or pericardial tamponade
Emphysema
Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence