A brief overview of medical education in China (I apologise, it's late so I might miss something out).
Basically the medical education isn't that complex in China, one applies to get into medical school, much like one does overseas. Some schools accept direct enquiries or via agents, whereas some might only accept direct applications. Some might do applications online, while others may only accept applications via post. Applicants can be funded either with government funding and therefore bonding to work in a designated area post graduation etc or are private paying students which self fund the course (to a greater extent - the latter group includes foreigners). There are some FULL Chinese government scholarships for foreign students but this is generally restricted to applicants from third world countries, and for now do not include English taught programs. There might sometimes be the opportunity for some partial scholarships for a subject or semester here and there, but that's a different topic for now.
I know a couple of Dr's who completed their medical degree as part of the FULL scholarship program offered by the Chinese government (which paid the whole 6 year program inclusive of intern year taught in Mandarin) who have since returned to their home countries and are working as Dr's, which was part of the deal.
Essentially foreign students have to be self funded and can apply to either Mandarin or English taught programs to schools which have been APPROVED TO ENROL FOREIGN STUDENTS INTO STUDYING FOR A PRIMARY MEDICAL DEGREE (e.g. qualification leading to MBBS or equivalent such as Bachelor of Clinical Medicine). For students attempting to enrol into the Mandarin taught program, they have to pass HSK either at the time of application and provide proof or very soon thereafter, and since applicants applying this route are competing against local students for places it is VERY VERY COMPETITIVE which is why some Chinese students get an overseas passport through family etc, and apply as foreign passport holders into the English taught programs as the entry criteria is much more relaxed. The complexity though for the English taught medical program can be related though to IELTS/TOFEL requirements for students who's first language is not English.
Once applicants can satisfy the entry criteria and are offered a place and accept it, then they have 5-6 years of hard study ahead, including having to learn Mandarin to function in clinical placements (after all it's China where very very few people speak English).
The same subjects are taught as would be found at most medical schools, A & P, Bio etc etc. Add to that, near the end of the English taught medical degree programs all students are required to pass the HSK, and SOME medical schools go so far as to not award the degree should a student fail to pass HSK. Of course by that time, one would have been exposed to a lot of Mandarin being used out on clinicals so it'd be highly unlikely that a med student would get so far into the program and not be able to pass HSK, but it could happen and is something that one has to consider. Mandarin is a difficult language taking years and years to become even somewhat fluent in (both orally and written) and studying medicine is difficult enough without having to master a complex language too. This is one of the BIG drawbacks of studying medicine in China and an Achilles heel for China to overcome if it truly wants to open itself up to become a educational destination of choice for students IMO.
At the end of the medical degree when all subjects have been attempted and passed, the student completes their final year (intern) via the four traditional clinical rotations and are passing all the requirements of that before being awarded their degree. It's at this time (after completing intern), that successful students become eligible to sit the Chinese medical board medical license exam, and after successful passes get their medical license and begin the hard slog at the bottom of the totem pole.
There are a whole range and raft of issues that one must consider in terms of licensing back to one's home country and eligibility and so on, but the easiest way to deal with that is to approach the relevant medical board in the jurisdiction where one intends to practice. Some countries medical boards will have specific requirements so it is advisable for one to do their due diligence well before starting out on this path.
A friendly pointer for prospective students. This is China, it has its own educational system, it does not teach medical personnel for anywhere in particular except for working in China. Medical schools don't teach with PLAB in mind, they don't teach with USMLE in mind or anything else other than the system that exists in China. If you are reading this and wondering about whether or not learning biomedicine in China is right for you, and will it prepare it for you to pass USMLE, PLAB etc, the simple answer is no since that is not the system used. This doesn't mean you won't have a good foundation, but you will have to do all your own legwork to get prepared for whatever licensing exams might be required outside of China.